Volume9,Issue4

1. Phytoremediating Activity of Baccharis latifolia in Soils Contaminated With Heavy Metals
Franco A. Haiver E., Celis Crispín, Forero Sandra, Pombo Luis M. , Rodríguez A. Oscar E.
Abstract
Phytoremediation as an economic alternative with less impact on the environment uses species that accumulate heavy metals in their organs during their development; in this research, the ability of the species Baccharis latifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers. – Chilca (Asteraceae) to absorb and accumulate heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, lead, cobalt and arsenic was evaluated to determine if it is a species potential for phytoremediation processes; the species was collected in Villapinzón (upper basin of the Bogotá River), a sector with a high degree of contamination by heavy metals in water and soil, due to the fact that for decades the tanneries industry has settled in the locality, throwing its waste products to the river without any type of previous treatment; consequently the population have been harmed. The species B. latifolia and the soil where it is grown, was collected in the municipality of Villapinzón-Cundinamarca on the banks of the Bogotá river (problem plant) and the other called control plant in the municipality of La Calera-Cundinamarca. To each of the organs (leaves, stem, root) and soil were made an acid digestion process with hydrochloric acid and nitric acid 1: 1, to obtain chlorides and nitrates. The quantification of heavy metals was performed using the atomic absorption technique, the metals analyzed were Cadmium, Lead, Chromium, Cobalt, Lead and Arsenic; as a result we obtained high concentrations for leaf arsenic 103.91 mg/kg, in stem 480.45 mg/kg followed by chromium in leaves 19.54 mg/kg, in stem 136.40 mg/kg; as for the highest root and soil concentration indexes, they were Arsenic with 491.97 mg/kg and 461.77 mg/kg, respectively; and Chromium with 185.09 mg/kg, 1294.43 mg/kg, respectively. According to the results obtained, the species B. latifolia can be proposed as an alternative for the phytoremediation process in the sector under study.

2. Conservation of the Natural Characteristics of the Cocoa Paste (Theobroma cacao L.) in Ecuador Using the Grinding and Toasting Methods
Bayas-Morejón I. F, Tigre R. A, García M. I, Barragán Vinueza U, Lucio-Quintana A, Yánez D, Barberán C, Ramón-Curay R, Segura J
Abstract
Ecuador has been characterized as one of the pioneers in the recovery and cultivation of fine aroma cocoa, for which, two methods of grinding and roasting (traditional and semi-industrial) were tested applying a complete random design with a 2x2x3 factorial arrangement. Weight, pH and moisture analyzes were performed on the raw material. After obtaining the cocoa paste, analyzes were made of: weight, pH and sensory evaluation, as well as, measurement of bromatological parameters of moisture, total ash and fat in the best treatment. In the raw material, the results were within the allowed, in the pH and weight analyzes of the cocoa paste, there was no significant statistical difference between treatments. On the other hand, in the sensory analysis, treatment 4 (method of “semi-industrial grinding and roasting”) presented greater acceptance by the tasters, selecting this as the best. The results obtained in the bromatological analysis were within the allowed parameters.

3. Anticancer Potential of (R) -5,7-Dihydroxyflavanone from Leaves of Chromolaena leivensis (Hieron) on Cancer Cells
Méndez-Callejas G. M., Rodríguez-Mayusa J., Celis-Zambrano C. A., Rodríguez O. E., Torrenegra-Guerrero R. D.
Abstract
Background: Flavonoids isolated from plants have demonstrated an important role in cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy. The genus Cromolaena has been shown to have active principles against this disease and found in species such as C. odorata, and C. laevigata in a concentration lower than 100 mg/L, however, flavonoids from C. leivensis has not been studied completely as an alternative in cancer treatment. Materials and Methods:  The (2R)-5,7-dihydroxy flavanone or (R) Pinocembrin was isolated from leaves of Chromolaena leivensis (Hieron) using chromatography methods. Its structure and relative configuration were determined by NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. We evaluated the (R) Pinocembrin effects on cell proliferation, morphology, DNA damage, and cell cycle progression of cancer cell lines Results: The compound showed a decreasing cell proliferation rate against HT29, PC-3, A549, MDA-MB-231, and SiHa cancer cell lines with an IC50 values between 58.9 mg/L, and 30.9 mg/L, causing alterations in the stability of the cytoskeleton and G1-phase cell cycle arrest without affecting significantly the DNA integrity. Conclusion: The (R)-Pinocembrin is a potential molecule to be used in the treatment of cancer with an action on the cytoskeleton. Our study indicate that the medium polarity fraction obtained from C. leivensis is a promising fraction which could be used as in the treatment of cancer, especially as a coadjuvant.