International Journal of

Current Pharmaceutical Review and Research

ISSN: 0976 822X

Peer Review Journal

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This journal is member of Crossref. 

Pooja Kumari, Dilip Agrawal, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Mohit Khandelwal, Shaneza Aman, Shweta bhandari

There are many semisolid dosage forms but creams, pastes, emulsions, ointments, gels, and rigid foams etc are main examples of this category of dosage form. They serve as carriers for drugs that are topically, administered by route of the skin (derma), retina, rectal tissue, nasal mucosa, vagina, buccal tissue, urethral membrane, and external ear lining. Extant definitions of lotions, gels, creams and ointments vary depending on literature source, market history or traditional use. This often leads to confusion when deciding which topical Dosages forms to prescribe and purchase. The purpose of this study is to obtain a scientifically based, regular classification of Dosages forms for topical drugs. A variety of prescriptions and over the counter topical products currently marketed as lotions, gels, creams, and ointments are evaluations using variant techniques including rheology, viscosity and shear rate versus shear stress, loss on drying , specific gravity, surface tension, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), water absorption, dilution properties, microscopic evaluation, transmittance of visible light, features (appearance)or conformation (composition). Skin is the largest organ of the humanitarian corpus and plays the most important role in protecting against microorganisms and foreign body. The important instruments such as topical, regional and Transdermal are widely used for delivery of variant dosages forms. The main use of semi-solid dosage form additives are controlling the development of absorption, maintaining the viscosity, improving the stability as well as organoleptic (sense organs) Property and increasing the bulk of the (synthesis) formulation.

Amit Kumar, Vimal Kishor, Mahendra Singh, Shreya Agarwal, Vandana Sharma, Mukesh Sharma, Shankar Lal Soni, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Vani Madaan
Drugs are the most important component of health care expenditures, and more attention is being drawn to the relation between the costs of medication and their benefits. Pharmacoeconomics is a sub-discipline of health economics which serve to guide optimal healthcare resource allocation, in a standardized and scientifically grounded manner. The pharmacoeconomic evaluation along with pharmacoepidemiology studies aims to bring together the various specialties of medicine, epidemiology, biostatistics, health services research, and the social sciences to evaluate the effectiveness of existing and new prescription drugs in relation to their risks and costs; to study how medications are used by physicians and patients; and to develop methods to optimize prescription drug use. Pharmacoeconomic evaluations compare both cost and consequences of at least two interventions which helps in establishing accountability that is claimed by a manufacturer. Proper application of pharmacoeconomics will allow the pharmacy practitioners and administrators to make better and more informed decisions regarding products and services they provide.

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