Volume7,Issue5

1. Antibacterial Activity of the Marine Diatom Skeletonema costatum Against Selected Human Pathogens
Ruth Daniel
Abstract
In recent years, biological activities, potential health benefits, and nutritional value of marine algae have been intensively investigated. Marine algae represent about 9% of biomedical compounds obtained from the sea. Infectious diseases caused by bacteria have a large impact on public health. The resistance of pathogenic bacteria to existing antibiotics has become a global epidemic. Marine algae derivatives have shown promise as candidates in novel, antibacterial drug discovery. The antibacterial activity of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum (Greville) Cleve collected from South East Coast of India was examined against the selected Human Pathogenic bacteria. The active compounds extracted using water, ethanol and methanol partly purified from the algal extract were tested against the pathogens: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salomonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi B, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus. The organic extract B (Methonol) appeared to be the most active. The extract B exhibited weak activity against Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris,Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella paratyphi B and Vibrio cholerae. Extract B exhibited it maximum activity against Staphylococcus aureus. It exhibited no activity against Salmonella typhi, the fraction C (Ethanol) appeared to inhibit Proteus mirabilis, Samolnella typhi and Staphylococcus aureues weakly, whereas Vibrio cholerae was inhibited effectively by this fraction. The growth of the Human pathogenic bacteria appeared to be inhibited by the organic extract of the diatom. However, there was no activity in distilled water extracts against all pathogens tested. Hence from the observed results The Extract B extract was found to be potent against mentioned human pathogens. They could be used by the pharmaceutical industry in drug development to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), infection from virus, bacteria and fungus, inflammation, pain, arthritis etc.

2. Effectiveness of the Class VI Internal Chemical Indicator Strip on Steam Sterilization of Sodium Chloride Infusion
Kurniawansyah I S, Abdassah M, Selvamani S
Abstract
Steam sterilization which utilizes the autoclave is an effective and fast method of sterilization. The purpose of sterilization is to provide sterile products, material and medical equipment. All goods which have been sterilized must have a sterility assurance. Sterility testing can be done based on the usage combination of mechanical, chemical and biological indicators as sterilization parameters. The purpose of this research was to find out the effectiveness of the Class VI Internal Chemical indicator strip on steam sterilization of sodium chloride infusion. This research is a laboratory experiment with procedural stages of this research includes formulation of the NaCl 0.9 % infuses, the application of class VI Internal Chemical indicator strip in the steam sterilization process and evaluation of the NaCl 0.9 % infuse which includes sterility testing. The timings of sterilization used were 5, 7, 9, 10.5, 12, 13.5 and 15 min. The results show that class VI internal chemical indicator strip shows intended color change after 12 min of sterilization. The results of the sterility test on the sodium chloride 0.9 % infuse has no microbial growth starting from sterilization time 10.5 min onwards. The class VI internal chemical indicator strip is effective with 12 min of steam sterilization at 121 °C.

3. Antibacterial and Phytochemical Investigation of Thuja orientalis (L.) Leaves Essential Oil from Syria
Mohamad Jawad Khubeiz, Ghaytha Mansour, Bahira Zahraa
Abstract
Thuja Orientalis (L) (Platycladus orientalis) belongs to the family of Cupressaceae. This species is an important herb in oriental world medicine as used in treatment of so many diseases. In this work the essential oil content variation and antimicrobial activity have been determined. Fresh leaves of Th. Orientalis, grown in the south Syria were subjected to hydro distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and the chemical composition of the essential oil have been studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Mono and sesquiterpenoids in essential oil were reported as chemical constituents of this plant. Twenty-four components (97.59%) were identified. The major components were α-pinene (22.25%), 3-carene (20.65%), cedrol (18.71%), β –Caryophyllene (6.13%), α-Humulene (5.68%), Terpinolene (4.53%), and Limonene (3.35%). The present study led to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil against some pathogenic microorganisms. The essential oil showed appreciable antibacterial effect against some Gram-positive less than Gram negative bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) revealed the lowest activity against Streptococcus pyogens and Vibrioparahaemplyticus (1.6 mg/mL) while the highest activity was against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (0.4 mg/mL). The MBC activity was from (1.6 mg/mL) to (3.2 mg/mL).

4. Enhancement of Solubility and Dissolution Rate of Glibenclamide by Cocrystal  Approach with  Solvent Drop Grinding Method
Arif Budiman, Elis Nurlatifah, Saeful Amin
Abstract
Solubility is one of the physical properties of active substances that affect drug absorption after dissolved in the gastrointestinal tract. Drugs with a limited aqueous solubility show low bioavaibility and will affect dissolution as a determine rate limiting step  in the absorption process of the drug. Glibenclamide is antidiabetic which based on the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS), has  low solubility and high permeability which causes low bioavailability. Cocrystallization is  the process to enhance the physical properties of drugs, especially the solubility. The research aimed to determine enhancement of solubility and dissolution rate  of co-crystal of glibenclamide, and determine the characterization of co-crystal of glibenclamide. The co-crystal of glibenclamide-oxalic acid was made by comparison 1:0, 1:1 and 1:2 with solvent drop grinding method and then were tested for solubility and dissolution rate. After that Co-crystal of glibenclamide-oxalic acid was characterized by X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The result showed that co-crystal of glibenclamide with oxalic acid could increase solubility and dissolution rate of glibenclamide. Comparison of glibenclamide: oxalic acid 1: 2 showed the highest results of solubility and dissolution test. The results of x-ray diffraction characterization indicated co-crystal formation, the appearance of the new endothermic peak  at 99.8-123.9 oC  Differential Scanning Calorimetry  (DSC) and changing of spectra between  3367.1-3366.73 cm-1 and 2857.99-2931.27 cm-1 through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry (FT-IR).  

5. Chemical Compositions and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaves Eucalyptus camaldulensis Essential Oils from Four Syrian Samples
Mohamad Jawad Khubeiz , Ghaytha Mansour, Bahira Zahraa
Abstract
Essential oils are highly concentrated substances extracted from medicinal plants. These essential oils are often used for their flavor and their therapeutic or odoriferous properties. Extraction of essential oils is one of the most time and effort consuming processes. This is why it is important to study the chemical composition of the essential oil. Aim of this study is to determine the essential oil content variation and antimicrobial activity of four different Eucalyptus camaldulensis samples in Damascus region. E. camaldulensis Leaves were collected in May 2015. Fresh leaves of samples were subjected to hydro distillation for 6 hours in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The chemical compositions of essential oils were characterized by GC-MS, and were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and macro broth dilution methods against ten bacterial strains. The essential oil yields were (S1: 0.71%, S2: 0.37%, S3: 0.65% and S4: 0.45% v/w). Monoterpene hydrocarbons were a major class of compounds. Among them, dominant compounds were P-cymene (19.21, 20.37, 16.58, and 21.70) and β-phellandrene (11.46, 4.14, 13.39 and 2.97) respectively. The second largest group was oxygenated monoterpenes with 1,8-Cineole (5.67, 7.82, 2.39, 3 and 3.29), cryptone (8.61, 6.81, 6.41 and 14.01), and terpinene-4-ol (3.82, 2.10, 4.35 and 4.23) respectively, as predominant. Besides, high content of sesquiterpene Caryophyllene oxide (9.16, 19.72, 23.57 and 15.39) respectively, was found. The essential oils extracted was tested for antimicrobial activity against ten organisms, four gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Micrococcus luteus) and six gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Vibrio parahaemolyticus). The samples essential oil shows a max zone against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and shows no activity detected against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) revealed the highest activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus (0.1 mg/mL) and Staphylococcus   aureus (0.2 mg/mL), while the lowest activity was against Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.6 and 3.2 mg/mL). The Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) activity ranged from (0.2 mg/mL) to (3.2 mg/mL).

6. Advancement of Nanopharmaceutics in Drug Delivery
Dinesh S R, Umashankar M S, Rini R, Aditi D, Kanchan K
Abstract
In the current era, the development in nanoparticles drug delivery is widely expected to change the outlook of pharmaceutical industries for the upcoming prospects. Nanotechnology has become a significant priority worldwide. A variety of manufactured nanoparticles – particles with one dimension less than 100 nm – are rampantly used in consumer products.  In the range of nanosize, the properties of materials differ significantly from bulk materials having the same composition, mostly because of the increased specific surface area and reactivity, which might result into increased bioavailability and toxicity. A nanoparticle has incepted as a promising strategy for the efficient delivery of drugs used for the treatment of some diseases by specific targeting. These Carriers are designed in such a way that they are self-standing in the environments and selective at the pharmacological site. The delivery of drug has its substantial physicochemical parameters like ionic strength, surface charge, particle size, molecular weight, pH and monomer concentration in the formation of nanoparticles. The major problem in chemotherapy which is the multi drug resistance can be overcome by these nanoparticles where it has the capability to reverse these conditions. Immunotherapy, cancer therapy and radiotherapy are the most common and well known therapies which are used in this technology. This mini-review is summarizing the information on different methods of manufacturing nanoparticles, focusing on its properties and biological transport.

7. Identification and Quantification of Phenolic Acids by HPLC, in Three Wild Edible Plants Viz. Viburnum foetidum, Houttuynia cordata and Perilla ocimoides Collected from North-Eastern Region in India
Tapan Seal, Basundhara Pillai, Kausik Chaudhuri
Abstract
A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method using photodiode array detector with gradient elution has been developed and validated for the   estimation of free phenolic acids (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, salicylic acid and ellagic acid), in two different solvent extracts  of  Viburnum foetidum, Houttuynia cordata and Perilla ocimoides  collected from North-eastern region in India . The chromatographic separation of phenolic acids was carried out on Acclaim C 18 column (5 μm particle size, 250 x 4.6 mm), Dionex Ultimate 3000 liquid chromatograph and detection was carried out   at three different wave lengths (272, 280 and 300 nm) using a mobile phase of methanol and 1% aqueous acetic acid solution with gradient elution. The experimental results showed a very high amount of protocatechuic acid in the methanol extract of V. foetidum (65.08±0.04 mg/gm dry extract) of the plant material. The high percentage of recovery (98-99%), low coefficient of variation (R2 > 0.99) and low limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) confirm the suitability of the method for simultaneous quantification of all phenolic acids in the three plants under investigation.

8. Exploring Potential Mechanisms of Action of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Parkinson’s Disease: In Vivo Study
Ahmed Hanaa H, Metwally Fateheya M, Aglan Hadeer , Sayed Alaa H
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a predominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by debilitating movement as a result of dopaminergic (DA) neurons loss. Currently used therapies improve only the disease symptoms without halting or inverting DA neurons deterioration. For this purpose, this study was goaled to explicate the role of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) in promoting dopaminergic neurons repairment in rodent model of PD after 2 months. ADMSCs were engrafted into injured brains and enhanced serum brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and brain DA levels. Moreover, they amplified the expression level of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene and increased the number of survivin expressing cells. Finally, they were able to recover the neuronal degeneration of striatum. The aforementioned data clearly demonstrated the promising therapeutic action of ADMSCs in PD through their neurotrophic, neuroregenerative and anti-apoptotic properties.

9. Tricholoma giganteum Ameliorates Benzo[A]Pyrene – Induced Lung Cancer in Mice
Chatterjee S, Chatterjee A, Chandra S, Khatua S, Saha G K, Acharya K
Abstract
Tricholoma giganteum is a wild edible mushroom, consumed in tropical region of the world and demonstrated to have multiple beneficial effects. We investigated the chemopreventive effect of ethanolic fraction of T. giganteum in mice with acute lung injury induced by Benzo[a]Pyrene. Oral administration of Benzo[a]Pyrene (1 mg/20g body weight) induced marked lung injury, evident from histological and biochemical data. Intraperitoneal administration of ethanolic fraction of T. giganteum (50 mg/kg body weight) significantly overcame the side effect of benzo[a]pyrene by modulation of different antioxidant enzyme and pro/anti-apoptotic gene ratio. Therefore, it could be inferred that alcoholic extract of T. giganteum may hold promise as a chemopreventive agent during the early phases of carcinogenesis.

10. A Prospective Study of Antimicrobial Utilisation and Cost Pattern Analysis in the Treatment of Neonatal Sepsis in a Tertiary Care Hospital
Kumar M D, Adiga S, Lewis L E, Tripathy A
Abstract
Neonatal sepsis is one of the most common reasons for admission to neonatal units. The present study, a prospective observational one, was carried out to find the antimicrobial utilisation and the various costs involved in the treatment of neonatal sepsis. Data pertaining to demographic characteristics, type of sepsis, various investigations, treatment details, costs and clinical outcome were noted at baseline and discharge. 65% of the neonatal sepsis cases were seen in male infants. Bacterial infection was the cause of sepsis in 65% of all the neonates, Klebsiella pneumoniae being the most commonly implicated micro-organism. The two initial antimicrobial regimens which were commonly preferred were ampicillin with amikacin (60%) and a combination of piperacillin plus tazobactam and amikacin (40%). 74% of neonates who were diagnosed with sepsis recovered completely from their ailment. Supportive measures, including cardiac monitoring and respiratory care, had the highest mean cost component/patient of INR 9819.05 ± 8608.61. In comparison to it, supportive drug therapy, with intravenous fluids and drugs, formed the lowest cost component (INR 3918.98± 2684.06/patient) in the study group. Treatment of gram negative sepsis and late onset sepsis was comparatively more expensive. Hence early diagnosis and appropriate antibacterial therapy could prevent the monetary burden of this dreadful disease.

11. Evaluation of the Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Antidiabetic and Hemolytic Activity of Organically Grown Solanum nigrum and Solanum xanthocarpum
R S A Sorna Kumar, R J Hariprasanth, M Prem Siddharth, M Gobinath, C Rajukutty
Abstract
Medicinal plants have been recognized and used throughout human history. Plants produce many chemical compounds that are for biological functions, including antioxidant, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial and hemolytic activities. In this present study, it was found that the leaf and fruit extracts of S. nigrum and S. xanthocarpum actively inhibited the growth of the microbes, had minimum hemolytic property, proficient anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant property. For S. nigrum, water and methanolic extract of fruit gave the maximum concentration (0.73±0.011 mg BSAE and 0.172±0.004 mg GAE) of total crude protein and total free phenol. S. xanthocarpum’s methanolic leaf extract gave the maximum free phenol concentration (0.282±0.011 mg GAE), and water extract of fruit gave the maximum concentration of crude protein (0.68±0.007 mg BSAE). In hydroxyl free radical scavenging assay, methanolic fruit extraction of S. nigram gave the maximum inhibition of 33.24±1.72 %. Wherein s. xanthocarpum’s water extract of fruit gave the maximum inhibition of 30.72±2.32%. In α-amylase inhibition method, methanolic fruit extract of S. nigrum gave a maximum inhibition of 16.28±1.32% at pH 3. S. xanthocarpum’s water extract of leaf gave maximum inhibition of 19.21±2.72% at pH 4. Antimicrobial activity by well diffusion method, S. nigrum’s methanolic extract of leaf and fruit as well as water extract of leaf showed a maximum zone against E.coli and methanolic and aqueous leaf extract of S. xanthocarpum showed maximum inhibition in growth of E.coli. Remaining organisms were gave mimimum zone of inhibition in all other extracts.

And in hemolytic activity, methonlic extract of leaf and fruit of S. nigrum showed higher percentage of hemolysis when compare to its aqueous extract and hemolysis was minute. Methanolic extract of leave and fruit of S. xanthocarpum gave 10.48±2.14 and 24.95± 4.29 respectively which is high when compared to the aqueous extract. Methanolic extract S. xanthocarpum possess good hemolytic activity.

12. Oxidative Stress and Protein Carbonylation as a New Tool to Assess Redox Status in Liver Toxicity Induced by Iron
Nia Kania, Iskandar Thalib, Eko Suhartono
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of iron (Fe) on Oxidative Stress Index (OSI) and Protein Carbonylation (PC), and their correlation in liver homogenate in vitro. In this experiment, a liver sample was taken from male rats (Rattus novergicus). Samples then homogenized and divided into four groups with; T0 served as control which contain liver homogenate only; T1 which contains liver homogenate+30 µg/dl of ferrous sulphate (FeSO4); T2 which contains liver homogenate+ 300 µg/dl of FeSO4; and T3 which contains liver homogenate+3000 µg/dl of FeSO4. After treatment, liver Total Oxidant (TO), Total Antioxidant (TA), OSI and PC level were estimated. The results revealed that Fe exposure could significantly increased TO, OSI, and PC level, and decreased TA level in liver cells (P<0.05). The result also revealed that OSI that induced by Fe have a strong correlation with PC (r=0,9388). These results indicated that Fe exposure induce OS which can be seen from the increasing of TO and OSI levels, and the decreasing of TA. Also, the results indicated that Fe exposure induced PC which related to Oxidative Stress (OS).

13. Effect of Certain Pharmacotherapies on Plasma Asymmetric Dimethyl Arginine (ADMA)
Patil T R, Patil S, Patil A, Patil S T
Abstract
Asymmetric dimethyl arginine [ADMA] is a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor and reduces nitric oxide [NO] generation. It is considered an important cardiovascular risk marker. It is raised in various clinical conditions like hypertension, ischemic heart disease, cardiac failure, diabetes mellitus, obesity and toxaemia of pregnancy. Certain drugs used to treat these conditions have additional ADMA lowering property which reflects in to good cardiac outcome. These drugs are angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers NO generating beta blockers, antidiabetic drugs like metformin and pioglitazone and hydrophilic statins which are used to treat these conditions. Low dose aspirin and estrogen, L-arginine, various antioxidants and homocysteine lowering drugs are associated with fall in ADMA levels. Hence awareness about the ADMA lowering potential of these drugs offers an additional benefit than their peers leading to better cardiac prognosis. Drugs like proton pump inhibitors; antiepileptics like carbamazepine and sodium valproate and also COX 2 inhibitors are observed to raise ADMA levels. Hence their choice should be done carefully and cautiously.

14. Chemical Constituents of Brassica rapa Chinensis L. and Brassica rapa var. Parachinensis (Baily) Hanelt
Consolacion Y Ragasa, Julian D Guardamano, Maria Carmen S Tan, Chien-Chang Shen
Abstract
Brassica rapa chinensis L. and Brassica rapa var. parachinensis (Baily) Hanelt were studied for their chemical constituents. The dichloromethane extracts of the leaves of Brassica chinensis L. afforded β-sitosteryl-3β-glucopyranoside-6¢-O-fatty acid esters (1), β-sitosterol (2), chlorophyll a (3) and phytyl fatty acid esters (4), while the leaves of Brassica rapa var. parachinensis (Baily) Hanelt yielded 4, monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (5) and lutein (6).  The structures of 1-6 were identified by comparison of their NMR data with those reported in the literature.