1. Antimicrobial and GC-MS Analysis of Memecylon edule Leaf Extracts Srinivasan R, Natarajan D, Shivakumar M S
Memecylon edule (L.) is belongs to Melastomataceae family used in many folklore medicines. The present study was focused on different solvent (methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and hexane) leaf extracts of M. edule were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential and bioactive components (ethyl acetate extract) were analyzed by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity was done by well in agar and disc diffusion methods against four fungal pathogens and 17 bacterial pathogens include 5 reference (MTCC) strains. `The results show all these extracts exhibited different degree of antimicrobial activity on tested organisms. Agar well diffusion method, contributed superior antimicrobial activity than disc diffusion method. The maximum antimicrobial activity was exhibited in ethyl acetate extract against Streptococcus pneumoniae (MTCC 655) (32 mm) with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) concentrations of 62.5 µg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 1 mg/ml with 5 CFU followed by acetone extract. In disc diffusion method, the ethyl acetate extract shows maximum antibacterial potential against S. pneumoniae (MTCC 655) (25 mm), Salmonella typhimurium 1 (MTCC 98) (25 mm) followed by acetone extract (against S. pneumoniae (MTCC 655) (22 mm), S. typhimurium 1 (MTCC 98) (22 mm)). Most of the tested extracts were show nil or least activity on fungal pathogens in both methods. The maximum antifungal activity was observed in ethyl acetate extract against Mucor racemosus (11 mm). The GC-MS profile of ethyl acetate extract of M. edule showed 26 major compounds (peaks) with different parentage of peak values. Among them, steric acid was predominant (20.19%) constituent. The results from this investigation encourage M. edule extracts may be used in treatment of diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.
2. Overview of Herbal Dermatological Products and its Regulatory Perspective Birje S.S., Kshirsagar A.D., Ziyaurrahman A.R.
The current review focuses on Herbal Dermatological Products (HDP) and its related regulatory concern. The demand for HDP is increasing day by day considering that they are safe and concern about their safety is also increased due to risk associated with use of large number of population and their raised possibilities of adverse reactions. There are various guidelines used for the testing of dermatogical products, but they need to be upgraded to include herbal OTC (Over the Counter) and Non-OTC products for their safety testing. Thus, the present review makes an attempt to overview the need of harmonizing existing guidelines of the toxicity testing for HDP.
3. Evaluation of Antifertility Potential of Ethanolic Extract of whole Plant of Achyranthes aspera in Female Albino Rats. M. Gurumani, K. Balamurugan
Achyranthes aspera is an important medicinal plant found throughout India. The antifertility activity of the ethanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera is now being investigated. The activity such as antizygotic activity, blastocystotoxic activity and abortifacient activity were investigated. The data suggests that the Achyranthes aspera extract exerted antifertility and antiestrogenic effects in female rats. The results revealed that ethanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera (ACE) treatment caused reduction in reproductive organ weights, number of implants. The effects brought by Achyranthes aspera extract are non-toxic and transient.