Volume8,Issue3

1. Embelin: A potential Benzoquinone
Shyam Baboo Prasad
Abstract
Embelin is a benzoquinone compound, present mainly in Embelia species. Embelin is also reported in Lysimachia punctate, Ardisia humilis, Rapanea umbellate, Cannarus richiei, Myrsine Africana and Myrsine capitellata. Embelin has demonstrated wide range of pharmacological activities including; antidepressant, anticancer, antifertility, antidiabetic, antioxidant and analgesic. Embelin shown other activities also such as antihyperlipidemic, antifungal, antihyperhomocysteinemic, anthelminthic, anticonvulsant, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, wound healing and anxiolytic activity. Recent studies, have thrown light on anti-arthritis and antiulcer activities of the benzoquinone. The present review, discusses pharmacological investigations on embelin, with potential for drug-development.

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2. Oxidative Stress Parameters as A Marker From Several Pathological Conditions in Cervical Mucus
Nia Kania, Syarifudin Basri, Iskandar Thalib, Eko Suhartono
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to measure several oxidative stress parameters in cervical mucous with several pathological conditions. The parameters are myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPPs) levels. Seventy-six women with aged 20-45 years, who attend to Indonesian Cancer Association, Jakarta, Indonesia were enrolled in the study. Cervical mucus was taken from each patient, and after that, pap smear procedure is performed to determine the condition of each patient’s cervix. According to the results of the pap smear, there are three cervical conditions, such as normal, mild chronic specific infection, chronic non-specific infection, and atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). A significant increase in MPO activity, H2O2, and AOPPs levels were observed in all group of patients, compared to normal patients. In conclusion, oxidative stress was involved in several pathological conditions in the uterine cervix, and the parameters measured in this study may be used as a marker in those conditions.

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3. Cyclodextrin: A Novel Excipient for Drug Development
Sudipta Das, Debatri Roy
Abstract
Cyclodextrin’s (CDs) are very important excipient in the recent drug development for the pharmaceutical industry due their ability to complex formation and their wide characteristics. Basically, Cyclodextrin’s are large molecules which contain number of hydrogen donors and acceptors; thus, they generally do not permeate lipophilic membrane. Mainly Cyclodextrin’s are used to enhance the drugs solubility, bioavailability, stability and safety of drug molecules. Because of its supramolecular structure, they carried out chemical reactions that involve intra-molecular interactions. According to structure CDs are three types like α, β and γ cyclodextrin’s. Cyclodextrin’s can improve the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs through complex formation. Complex formation takes place by several techniques like kneading, co-precipitation method, dry mixing, sealing, slurry-complexation, spray-drying, freeze-drying etc. Because of its various characteristics it is applied in pharmaceutical industry, cosmetics, foods and biotechnology industry. The objective of review article is to describe properties, structure, types, inclusion complex formation and application of cyclodextrin.

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4. Detection of Microaneurysms in Fundus Images using ELM Classifier
G R Hemalakshmi, N B Prakash
Abstract
The main objective of this paper is to detect the microaneurysms which is the sign and symptom for the retinal disease Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). In this work, the input image is preprocessed and then cross sectional scanning is applied for peak detection and property measurement. Feature set from the processed images is extracted and ELM classifier is used for MA detection. The experimental results show the proposed system provides better results compared to existing system.

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5. Sintering Method in Pharmaceutical Sciences: An Overview
Ravindra B Saudagar, Pratik V Bidwe
Abstract
In the pharmaceutical science, sintering has been described as the mechanism for the strengthening of the mechanical properties of consolidated pharmaceutical powders at elevated temperatures, for solid-bond formation during tablet compression, and for thermal curing of polymer-latex film coatings. The concept of sintering was applied in the investigation of the effect of heating on the mechanical properties of pharmaceutical powders. The sintering process has been used for the fabrication of controlled-release matrix tablets and for the stabilization of the drug permeability of film coatings derived from various pharmaceutical lattices. The changes in the hardness and disintegration time of tablets stored at elevated temperatures were described as a result of sintering. The formation of solid bonds within powder bed during tablet compression was also studied in terms of sintering. The concept of sintering was applied in the investigation of the effect of heating on the mechanical properties of pharmaceutical powders.

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6. A Review on Medicinal Plants Biodiversity of Vijayanagar Forest, Gujarat, India
Hiranmai R Y
Abstract
India is endowed with varying biogeography and physico-environment that encompasses a range of biodiversity with variation and endemism. Indian forests are characterised by human inhabitation from time immemorial.Gujarat situated at the western part of India is characterised by  the assemblage of sea, lofty Aravallis, Vindhyas, Satpura range and Thar desert giving a rich diversity of species, habitat and ecosystems. These eosystems despite its semi arid and arid climate encompasses unique and shelter some of the world’s threatened species of plants and animals. They have rich fauna and diverse flora of medicinal herbs that are traditionally used by the healers. Vijaynagar Polo forest of Himmatnagar in Sabarkantha district is one of such area that contains fascinating flora and fauna. It is a dry deciduous forest with teak trees and various medicinal plants that are seasonal. This paper describes the scope of exploration of the forest for medicinal plants biodiversity in addition to the eco tourism that is practiced there for the rich fauna and flora of river side with most ancient historical sites.

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7. Film Forming Emulgel: An Overview
R B Saudagar, S B Khairnar
Abstract
Sustained release delivery system with features of both semisolid formulations And patches has been employed in the formulation of film forming emulgel. The concept of film forming formulation is very recent. Film forming formulations may be solutions, gel o emulsions. Film forming formulations are defined as non solid dosage forms that produce a substantial film in situ after application on the skin or any other body surface. Such a compositions can either be liquid or semisolids with a film forming polymers as basic materials for the matrix. He formed film is sufficiently substantial to provide a sustained drug release to the skin. Film forming emulgels are emulsions, either of the oil-in-water or water-in-oil type, which are gelled by mixing with a gelling agent. Film forming emulgel is stable one and better vehicle for hydrophobic or water insoluble drugs.

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8. Corrosive Effect of Probiotic And Isotonic Drinks on Dental Archwires
Fajar Kusuma Dwi Kurniawan, Dini Novita Putri, Tri Nastiti Husna, Eko Suhartono
Abstract
The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of probiotic and isotonic drinks on chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) release from dental archwires. The conventional stainless steel dental archwires were used in this study, with 0.8 cm diameter, and 5 cm long from each sample. Total samples are 54 pieces dental archwires. The samples then divided into two major groups: (1) the probiotic (T1); and (2) isotonic (T2) drinks. Each major group consist three subgroups, such as: for the T1: (1) T1,1: as a negative control group (samples were immersed in saline solution); (2) T1,2: as a positive control group (samples were 1% lactic acid); (3) T1,3: as a treatment group (samples were immersed in normal saline + probiotic drink); and for the T2: (1) T2,1: as a negative control group (samples were immersed in saline solution); (2) T2,2: as a positive control group (samples were immersed in 1% lactic acid); (3) T2,3: as a treatment group (samples were immersed in normal saline + isotonic drink). After the immersion testing, there was a significance difference in Cr and Ni release from dental archwires between the subgroup of treatments from both probiotic and isotonic drinks (Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney test; P < 0.05). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that both probiotic and isotonic drinks induced the releasing of Cr and Ni from dental archwires.

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9. Film Forming Gels: A Review
R B Saudagar, P A Gangurde
Abstract
Film forming gels are a novel approach in this area that might present at an alternative to the conventional dosage form used on  the skin , such as ointments , creams , gels or patches. The polymeric solution is applied to the skin as a liquid and forms an alomost invisible film in situ by solvent evaporation. transdermal drug delivery system and dermal drug delivery system can provide some desirable performance over conventional pharmaceutical dosage formulations, such as avoiding gut and hepatic first-pass metabolism, improving drug bioavailability, reducing dose frequency and stabilizing drug delivery profile. The aim of this review was to search for alternative to conventional forms in order to reduce skin irritation, improve skin adhesion properties, enhance the drug release and increase the patient acceptability from an aesthetic perspective. Because of their peculiar rheological behavior, polymeric gels are beneficial in terms of ease of preparation, ease of application, adhesion to the application surface and ability to deliver a wide variety of drugs.

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10. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Chalconyl Incorporated Schiff’s Bases of Sulphonamides
Neeraj Kumar, Dhruti Bhatt, Chandra Shekhar Sharma, Hamendra Pratap Singh, Harshda Pandiya, Yashwant
Abstract
A series of of Chalconyl Incorporated Schiff’s Bases of Sulphonamides was synthesized by reacting substituted chalcone derivatives with Sulphacetamide sodium in methanol. All the title compounds synthesized (2a-2d) were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activity using E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, S. pyogenus and C. albicans, A. niger and A. clavatus respectively as microbial strains and Sulphacetamide sodium as standard. The compound 2d showed significant antibacterial activity and 2a showed moderate antifungal activity as compared with Sulphacetamide Sodium.

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11. Formulation and Evaluation of Orally Fast Dissolving Wafer by Using Natural Gum: Review Article
Darekar A B, Sonawane S M, Saudagar R B
Abstract
Oral thin film a new drug delivery system for the oral delivery of the drugs, was developed based on the technology of the transdermal patch. Fast-dissolving oral thin film is a solid dosage form, which disintegrate or dissolve within 1 min when placed in the mouth without drinking water or chewing. Oral film includes various ingredients for its formulation. Fast dissolving film is prepared using hydrophilic polymers that rapidly dissolves on the tongue or buccal cavity, delivering the drugto the systemic circulation via dissolution when contact with liquid is made. Water-soluble polymers are used as film formers for fast dissolving films. The water-soluble polymers achieve rapid disintegration, good mouth feel and mechanical properties to the films. Fast-dissolving oral thin film offer fast, accurate dosing in a safe, efficacious format that is convenient and portable, without the need for water or measuring devices

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12. Therapeutic Potential of Vanda roxburghii Roxb.: A Review
Mukhtar H M, Kalsi V
Abstract
Orchids are the largest and the most diverse group among the angiosperms. They are cultivated for beautiful flowers. They exhibit incredible range of diversity in size, shape and color of their flowers. These plants have been well known for their economic importance but less for their medicinal value. Many orchids have been used as drugs in Ayurveda for various ailments. The genus Vanda from this family includes a medicinal epiphytic plant Vanda roxburghii commonly called as Rasna which is a perennial orchid. The plant has been used traditionally for many ailments. The plant has been subjected to a number of biological activities and has given fruitful results. Vanda roxburghii has been found to be useful as  aphrodisiac, antibacterial, antifungal, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, antioxidant agent. The plant has also been tested for hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antinociceptive, analgesic and antidiabetic activity. The present communication deals with the work done on biological activities of this important medicinal plant.

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13. Neurological Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors- A Review
Patil T R, Patil S T, Patil S, Patil A
Abstract
Proton pump inhibitors [PPIs] are extensively used drugs for various indications. They are not approved for long term use by regulatory authorities.  PPIs are also available as over the counter drugs which can lead to their inappropriate use. Amongst the adverse drug reactions [ADRs] of PPIs, dementia and Alzheimers disease [AD] are the recent ones. Inappropriate long  term use  of  PPIs can  lead to  serious ADRs like myocardial infarction, nephropathy along with dementia. The possible mechanisms for PPIs induced dementia and    AD are endothelial dysfunction, its aging and senescence. Effect on lysosomal function and proteostasis, shortening  of telomere length, and  inhibition of vacuolar ATPases [V-ATPases] of microglial   lysosomal membrane  also contribute  for this pathology. Increased generation of beta amyloid [Aβ] peptide by inverse gama secretase modulation and augmentation of beta secretase are responsible for the generation and accumulation of Aβ along with its decreased degradation as a result of inhibition of V-ATPases in the microglia. Vitamin B 12 absorption is decreased due to long term use of PPIs. This also contributes for nerve damage as a result of impaired DNA synthesis, methylation and homocysteine neurotoxicity along with cognition impairment. Seizure like condition can be the result of hypomagnesemia induced by long term PPIs use. Thus long term, inappropriate use of PPIs invite serious and life threatening conditions which need to be kept in mind by the clinician before prescribing  them.

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14. Niosomes: An Update
Shilpi Arora, Yashwant
Abstract
Over decades researchers are striving to use the drugs in an efficient manner to treat various diseases. The efficient use can be explained as reduced dose, reduced side effects, reduced dosage frequency, greater patient compliance and maximum concentration of the drug at the site of action so as to reduce the undue exposure to the entire body. The article focuses on various advantages of vesicular systems (niosomes) to develop the effective delivery system to achieve maximum effective concentration. Niosomes, nonionic surfactant vesicles with lamellar structure which may be unilamellar and multilamellar serve to be efficient in providing these required advantages. The bilayer structure of niosomes being amphiphillic in nature can be used to deliver hydrophilic drugs in its aqueous core and lipophilic drugs in the bilayer made up of surfactants. Various additives in niosomes include nonionic surfactant as film forming agent, cholesterol as stabilizing and rigidizing agent for the bilayer and various charge inducers which develop a charge on the surface of niosomes and stabilize the prepared formulation by the resulting repulsive forces. This article also comprises of various breakthroughs in niosomal delivery of drugs representing various classes. On the basis of above information, the niosomes have been thoroughly exploited for the drug delivery system and still offer scope for research on various drugs for their maximum therapeutic utilization in management and treatment of various dreadful diseases.

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15. A Review on Fast Dissolving Tablet
Sagar T Malsane, Smita S Aher, R B Saudagar
Abstract
Oral route is presently the gold standard in the pharmaceutical industry where it is regarded as the safest, most economical and most convenient method of drug delivery resulting in highest patient compliance. Over the past three decades, orally disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have gained considerable attention due to patient compliance. Usually, elderly people experience difficulty in swallowing the conventional dosage forms like tablets, capsules, solutions and suspensions because of tremors of extremities and dysphagia. In some cases such as motion sickness, sudden episodes of allergic attack or coughing, and an unavailability of water, swallowing conventional tablets may be difficult. One such problem can be solved in the novel drug delivery system by formulating “Fast dissolving tablets” (FDTs) which disintegrates or dissolves rapidly without water within few seconds in the mouth due to the action of superdisintegrant or maximizing pore structure in the formulation. The review describes the various formulation aspects, superdisintegrants employed and technologies developed for FDTs, along with various excipients, evaluation tests, marketed formulation and drugs used in this research area.

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16. Review on Microsponges As a Novel Drug Delivery System
Pankaj V Ahire, A B Darekar, R B Saudagar
Abstract
Microsponge can be effectively incorporated into oral delivery of drugs using bio erodible polymer’s especially for colon specific delivery and also use for topical drug delivery system for retention of dosage form on skin and controlled release drug delivery system thus improving patient compliance by proving site specific drug delivery system and prolonging dosage intervals.  The microsponge consists of myriad of interconnecting voids within non- collapsible structures with a large porous surface. The size of Micro sponges can be varied usually from 5-300 µm in diameter. The outer surface is typically porous, allowing the sustained flow of substances out of the sphere. Microsponge delivery system (MDS) can provide increased efficacy for topically active agents with enhanced safety, extended product stability, enhanced formulation flexibility , reduced side effects and improved aesthetic properties in an efficient and novel manner In addition these are non-mutagenic, non allergic, and non-toxic . The present review introduces Microsponge technology along with its synthesis, characterization, programmable parameters and release mechanism of MDS

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17. Smart Polymers and their Applications: A Review
Gore S A, Gholve S B, Savalsure S M, Ghodake K B, Bhusnure O G, Thakare V M
Abstract
Smart polymers are materials that respond to small external stimuli. These are also referred as stimuli responsive materials or intelligent materials. Smart polymers that can exhibit stimuli-sensitive properties are becoming important in many commercial applications. These polymers can change shape, strength and pore size based on external factors such as temperature, pH and stress.  The stimuli include salt, UV irradiation, temperature, pH, magnetic or electric field, ionic factors etc. Smart polymers are very promising applicants in drug delivery, tissue engineering, cell culture, gene carriers, textile engineering, oil recovery, radioactive wastage and protein purification. The study is focused on the entire features of smart polymers and their most recent and relevant applications. Water soluble polymers with tunable lower critical solution temperature (LCST) are of increasing interest for biological applications such as cell patterning, smart drug release, DNA sequencing etc.

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