1. Acceptibility of Selected Recipes Incorporating Treated Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum Graecum) Flour in Type II Diabetes and Normoglycaemic Controls – Organoleptic Study. Lakshmi E, Saraswathy E
Impairment in taste modalities is described long before in patients with T2DM .The threshold for bitter taste is reduced in these patients due to diabetic neuropathy. Despite the evidence demonstrating the efficacy of fenugreek in the treatment of diabetes, its use for that purpose has been inhibited by its extremely bitter taste. Sensory evaluation of a food is related to the organo leptic feel of the product. Aim: To determine any significant difference in bitter flavor and taste perception between diabetics and normoglycaemics at each per cent level of fenugreek incorporation. To determine the significant difference in the threshold level for bitter flavor and taste perception in diabetics between different per cent level of fenugreek incorporation. To determine per cent level of fenugreek incorporation and the product acceptability in terms of visual attributes and tactile feel. Method: Three Indian recipes biscuits ,dhoklas and Kozhukattai were standardized with each recipe consisting of 10 ,15, 20 and 25 per cent variation of treated fenugreek flour and a control at the food science department of SRM arts and science college –kattankulathur.The experimental group consists of 20 T2DM and the control with 20 normoglycaemic subjects in the age group of 35-45 years from among the staff members. The product was evaluated using score card based on product related lexicon of 5 point hedonic scale rating. The results were statistically analysed using 2- way anova with interaction model and post-hoc test for paired comparison. Results: The study revealed a lower sensitivity to bitter flavour and taste modality in diabetics. Statistically there was significant difference( P<0.001) in evaluation of biscuits at all four levels of fenugreek incorporation. A significant difference (P<0.001) was also observed in dhoklas at 20 and 25 per cent.In kozhukattai significant difference ( P=0.795) at 10 percent and 25 percent ( P=0.356) was observed between diabetics and normoglycaemics. The post-hoc test in diabetics showed significant difference (P<0.005) in taste perception in biscuits at 10,20 and 25 per cent. A significant difference was also observed in dhoklas (P<0.005) between different concentration. In kozhukattai significant difference ( P<0.005) was noticed at 10,15 and 25 per cent in flavour and taste perception in diabetics. The threshold for bitter taste was perceived by diabetics slightly at 25 per cent level in all three products. In terms of visual attributes and tactile feel biscuites and dhoklas were acceptable at 10 per cent and kozhukattai was acceptable at 25 per cent of fenugreek incorporation. Conclusion: The study revealed a lower sensitivity to bitter flavour and taste modality in diabetics. The threshold for bitter taste was perceived only at higher concentration of 25 per cent in biscuits,dhoklas and kozhukattai.Treated fenugreek flour can be incorporated to about 25 per cent to reduce blood sugar in type II diabetes
2. A Potential of Some Medicinal Plants as a Digestive Disorder Preventing Agents – A Review Azizul Islam M , Murshida Begum M, Sarker M K, Akter A, Ahemed S U
Digestive disorders are the disorders of the digestive tract or the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). It is one of the common health problems spreading all over the world. It is estimated that some form of digestive disorder affects more than 100 million people only in America. For some people, digestive disorders are a source of irritation and discomfort that may cause them to drastically limit their life styles and frequently miss work. For others, the disorders may be extremely crippling and even fatal. A large number of plants are used as a source of drugs for the treatment of digestive disorders that may grow naturally or harvested. There have been considerable pharmacological investigations into the digestive disorders preventing the activity of some compounds. The present study was aimed at reviewing data about some plants that are commonly used as a preferable solution of different digestive problems. In this study we review those plants that have strong potential to cure not only common symptoms of digestive disorders like diarrhea, constipation, flatulence, but also serious digestive complications like Gastritis, Pancreatitis, Hepatitis A etc. with their active chemical constituents, their parts for use as well as their other common uses. The experimental parameters used for digestive disorder preventing activity were fasting-induced digestive disorder model, Diclofenac-induced gastric acidity model in rats and food-induced indigestion in rats. The ideal aims of treatment of digestive disorders are to relieve indigestion, enhance metabolism and provide comfort feelings. This article reviews drugs derived from medicinal plant more commonly used in the world for digestive disorders and, if reported, the digestive disorder preventing activity.
3. Triterpenes and Sterols from Sonneratia alba Consolacion Y. Ragasa, Virgilio D. Ebajo Jr., Mariquit M. De Los Reyes, Emelina H. Mandia, Robert Brkljača and Sylvia Urban
Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extract of Sonneratia alba Sm. afforded mixtures of oleanolic acid (1a) and ursolic acid (1b), α-amyrin cinnamate (2a) and β-amyrin cinnamate (2b), and β-sitosterol (3a) and stigmasterol (3b) from the fruit; lupeol (4), and mixtures of 1a and 1b, and 3a and 3b from the twigs; and 1b and squalene (5) from the leaves. The structures of 1–5 were identified by comparison of their NMR data with literature data.
4. A Review on Human Immunity System and HIV Infection Chinmaya Keshari Sahoo, Surepalli Ram Mohan Rao, Muvvala Sudhakar
The human immune system comprises of a network of cells, organs and molecules responsible for maintaining the body’s homeostasis. Innate immunity system operates in conjunction with adaptive immunity for first line defence.The mechanism includes chemical,physical,biological barriers, cellular components as well as soluble molecules. The progression of HIV infection is dependent on the interaction between the viral factors and host factors as well as depends upon genetic factors.HIV infects the CD4 lymphocytes in the body and destroys it through multiple mechanisms. Innate immune mechanism is linked with disease progression and adaptive immune system controls HIV infection. This present review outlines the idea about human immune system, life cycle of HIV and pathogenesis of HIV
5. Enhancement of Saturation Solubility and In Vitro Dissolution of Carvedilol Nanoparticles by High Pressure Homogenization Technique Ashok Kumar J, Ramkanth S, Lakshmana Prabu S, Gopal V
The objective of the work was to enhance the saturation solubility and in vitro dissolution of poorly soluble (BCS Class II) drug, Carvedilol by high pressure homogenization technique. Carvedilol nanoparticles were prepared by emulsion-diffusion followed by high pressure homogenization (HPH) technique with stabilizers. The prepared nanoparticle evaluated for its physicochemical properties, morphology, saturation solubility and in vitro dissolution study. The Carvedilol nanoparticles were prepared in a spherical shape and the size range of 120 nm to 300 nm. Carvedilol nanoparticles observed maximum saturation solubility of 410.75±3.58 µg / ml (82.15 %) in acetate buffer (pH 4.6) and its in vitro dissolution release was 94.5 % in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) after one hour. Prepared Carvedilol nanoparticles has three folder enhanced saturation solubility and in vitro dissolution rate than the pure drug, irrespective of medium. The obtained results suggested that HPH might be an efficacious technique for converting poorly soluble drug into nanoparticles and ultimately the effect of particle size reduction may enhancing the solubility and in vitro dissolution rate.
6. Exploration for Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Proteins from Edible Marine Source Himantura gerrardi Selvamani P , Latha S, Sherlina Daphny C, Arputha BibianaM
Marine organisms represent a valuable source of new compounds. The biodiversity of the marine environment and the associated chemical diversity constitute a practically unlimited resource of new active substances in the field of the development of bioactive products. Protein rich consumable marine fish named Stingray fish (Thirukkai meen) was collected from the seashore of Kanyakumari. Tissue and skin extracts were separated with the intention to identify antimicrobial proteins for the study. Tissue and skin were extracted by acetic acid, and it was partially purified using Ammonium sulphate precipitation method. Antimicrobial activity was done, and a maximum zone of inhibition was observed in Staphylococcus aureus with tissue extract and a maximum zone of inhibition was found in Klebsiella pneumoniae with skin extract by agar well diffusion method. The crude protein was quantified with 2 mg/ml for tissue extract and 1.26 mg/ml for skin extract. The FTIR analysis also revealed the presence of secondary amines in the crude extracts of tissue and skin. Time kill kinetics showed the results that the live bacterial cells were killed at the minimal concentration of the drug. Tissue extract showed a molecular weight ranging from 150 K.Da to10 K.Da and skin extract ranges below 25 K.Da by SDS-PAGE analysis. Agar overlay assay made possible to estimate the amount of antimicrobial activities of the proteins in a semi-quantitative manner and to identify such significant antibacterial activities in tissue extract. The molecular weight of tissue fraction from the obtained mass spectrum was about (app 10 K.Da), as determined by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The antimicrobial proteins/peptides identified from these edible sources were found to be promising antibiotics that may replace the existing synthetic antibiotics with side effects.