Volume7,Issue6

1. Electrophoretic and Molecular Dynamic Evaluation of Mutagenicity Induced by Toxic Factors Affecting Testicular Tissue in Rats
Wael M Aboulthana, Mohamed Ismael, Hatem S Farghaly
Abstract
The testes contain many proteins including testis-specific protein kinase 1 (TESK1) expressed predominantly and ubiquitously in mature testis. They exhibited a vital role in spermatogenesis process. Lithium is an effective drug for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Lead acetate (Pb2COOH) and Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) which is used as an insecticide in agriculture are considered as environmental pollutants. The prolonged exposure to these (toxic) substances exhibited adverse effect on male reproductive organs. Doxorubicin (DXR) and cyclophosphamide (CYP) are effective chemotherapeutic drugs. They exhibited toxicity on testicular proteins. Irradiation caused disruption of normal cyclic spermatogenesis through radiotherapy. During the present study, these toxic factors affect all electrophoretic patterns at qualitative level through their effect on number and arrangement of the bands and at the quantitative effect through changing the band quantity. In the electrophoretic protein pattern, the lowest similarity index (SI) value (0.42) was recorded with CYP-treated group and the highest SI value (0.79) noticed with Pb2COOH-treated group. In the electrophoretic lipoprotein pattern, the lowest SI values (0.44) was observed with Pb2COOH-treated group and the highest SI values (0.73 and 0.80) observed with CCl4-treated and irradiated groups. In catalase (CAT) pattern, the lowest SI value (0.69) was noticed in DXR-treated, CYP-treated and irradiated groups. The highest SI value (0.91) was observed with Pb2COOH-treated, Li2CO3-treated and CCl4-treated groups. In peroxidase (Gpx) pattern, the lowest SI value (0.25) was noticed with irradiated group and the hightest value (0.75) observed with CCl4-treated group. In esterase (EST) pattern, the lowest SI value (0.44) was observed with irradiated group and the highest SI value (0.86) noticed with DXR-treated group. The 3D model of TESK1 was built by means of restraint-based comparative modeling. It was noted that model of the TESK1 was quite big and no available template for the whole sequence and its first half (Up to residue 333).

2. Sterol and Lipid from Pleurotus eryngii (DC.) Quél. and Flammulina velutipes (Cuttis) Singer
Consolacion Y Ragasa, Maria Carmen S Tan, Robert Brkljača, Sylvia Urban
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extracts of the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus eryngii and Flammulina velutipes led to the isolation of ergosterol (1).  P. eryngii also afforded trilinolein (2), while F. velutipes also yielded triacylglycerol (3).  The structures of 1-3 were identified by comparison of their NMR data with literature data.

3. Pleiotropic Benefits of Proton Pump Inhibitors Beyond Gastric Acid Control
Patil T R, Patil S, Patil A, Patil S T
Abstract
Proton pump inhibitors are recommended for the treatment of peptic acid disorders like duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, oesophageal reflux disorders. They are also used for NSAID induced and for ischemia reperfusion related gastrointestinal injuries. In addition to the anti secretary effect, PPIs have been found to have antioxidant, anti inflammatory and antidiabetic properties They are also used as an adjunct in the treatment and prevention of chemoresistant tumors. Their anti inflammatory property is attributed to the inhibition of expression of   adhesion   molecules on the neutrophils, monocytes and the endothelial cells. In addition, decreased release of pro inflammatory mediators and up regulation of heme oxygenase –l also contribute to this action. Keap-1/Nrf-2 and MAP kinases have role to play in the upregulation of enzyme heme oxygenase-1 by PPIs. Inhibition of oxidative burst by neutrophils and impaired neutrophil migration also help in anti inflammatory actions of PPIs. Antioxidant effect of PPIs is attributed to the scavenging of reactive oxygen species, replenishment of protective sulfhydryl molecule in the gastric mucosa and the induction of heme oxygenase-1. Recently anti diabetic properties of PPIs have been highlighted. PPIs mediate glucose lowering effect   by   increased   gastrin levels, increased beta cell neogenesis and mass, increased insulin secretion. Inhibition of ghrelin, activation of central CCK-B receptors and GLP-1 activation from intestinal L cells also contribute to this effect.  The PPIs are used as   an adjunct   treatment for malignancy   and   also   to prevent chemoresistance. The mechanism responsible for this effect of PPIs on the malignant cells is through inhibition of V-ATPases and change in physiological pH which makes them succeptible for apoptosis and self digestion. This also results in to the increased drug retention in the alkaline pH of malignant cells.

4. Assessment of Mutagenicity Induced by Toxic Factors Affecting Ovarian Tissue in Rats by Electrophoresis and Molecular Dynamic Modeling
Wael M Aboulthana, Mohamed Ismael, Hatem S Farghaly
Abstract
Lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) and lead acetate (Pb2COOH) belong to the female reproductive toxicants that cause infertility through the interference with development of growing follicles in the ovarian tissue. Doxorubicin (Dox) and cyclophosphamide (CPA) are considered as the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs which are associated with the greatest risk of female infertility. Furthermore, whole body gamma irradiation for therapeutic purpose by mean of radiotherapy affected female reproductive organ through destruction of the small and antral follicles. The present study aimed to reveal the deleterious effect of all of these (toxic) substances factors on the cellular macromolecules which separated and identified electrophoretically in the ovarian tissue. During the present study, the toxic factors exhibited qualitative abnormalities represented by disappearance of normal bands and appearance of one or more of abnormal bands. Otherwise, the alterations may occur at the quantitative level through remaining the normal bands but with changing the band quantity. The similarity index (SI) is only correlated to the qualitative alterations. In the electrophoretic protein pattern, the lowest SI value (0.52) was recorded with CPA-treated group and the highest SI value (0.91) noticed with Pb-treated group. In the electrophoretic lipoprotein pattern, there were severe alterations. It was observed that all the bands in the Dox-treated and CPA-treated groups were not matched with all bands of the other groups. In catalase (CAT) pattern, The Pb-treated group is completely identical to control group in number and arrangement of the bands (SI value 1.0). The lowest SI value (0.57) was observed with CPA-treated and Irradiated groups. In peroxidase (POX) pattern, the lowest SI value (0.22) was observed with CPA-treated group and the highest value (0.86) was recorded with Irradiated group. In esterase (EST) pattern, the lowest SI value (0.29) was recorded with the Pb-treated group and the highest SI vale (0.80) was noticed with the Li2CO3-treated group. In addition, there was complete similarity between the Dox-treated and Irradiated groups and between CCl4-treated and CPA-treated groups. It was postulated that the 3D model of the prolactin receptor specific protein (PRAP) which was built using homology modeling showed that PRAP has large amount of loops. It is expected to be very flexible protein and less stable.

5. Antibacterial Efficacy of Essential Oils from Three Moroccan Plants (Lavandula officinalis, Origanum majorana and Thymus vulgaris) Against Clinical Isolates
Ez zoubi Yassine, Farah Abdellah, Rais Chaimae, Oumokhtar Bouchra, El Ouali Lalami Abdelhakim
Abstract
Traditional medicine is widespread in the world and it is the almost exclusive source of primary health care for 65% of the world’s population. The essential oils possess antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant and wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of Lavandula officinalis, Origanum majorana and Thymus vulgaris essential oils against pathogen bacteria as well as to compare its inhibitory effect versus commercial antibiotics. No studies have approached this aspect in hospitals of Fez city. The essential oils has been obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and it has been tested in vitro against bacteria, isolated from surfaces in Hemodialysis service at El Ghassani Hospital in the Fez city, such as Staphylococcus aureus, bacillus sp and Streptococcus sp using the paper disk agar diffusion method and the macrodilution assay for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC). The essential oils of Origanum majorana and Thymus vulgaris showed stronger antibacterial effects than the Lavandula officinalis essential oil. Among the commercial antibiotics, Ofloxacin had the widest coverage against all bacterias but the Amoxicilin antibiotic had shown a poor activity against all bacterias. Our results suggest that essential oils of Origanum majorana and Thymus vulgaris could be used for the development of new types of antibacterial agents and may therefore be used as therapeutic or disinfection compounds against these bacteria.

6. Antibacterial Effect and Phytochemical Screening of Essential Oil of Pimpinella anisum Against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus
Azadeh Foroughi, Pouya Pournaghi, Fariba Najafi, Akram Zangeneh, Mohammad Mahdi Zangeneh, Rohallah Moradi
Abstract
Considering the drug resistance and the side effects of chemical antibacterial drugs, the research approach is increasingly going toward using natural resources. Certainly, using herbal plants is the oldest way of mankind to treat bacterial diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of essential oil of Pimpinella anisum against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry was done to specify chemical composion. As a screen test to detect antibacterial properties of the essential oil, agar disk and agar well diffusion methods were employed. Macrobroth tube test was performed to determinate MIC. The results indicated that the most substance found in P. anisum essential oil was Trans-anethole (89.7 %), also the essential oil of P. anisum in 0.003 and 0.007 g/ml concentrations has prevented from the growth of the E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. Thus, the research represents the antibacterial effects of the medical herb on test E. coli and S. aureus. We believe that this article provide support to the antibacterial activities of the essential oil. The results indicate the fact that the essential oil from the plant can be useful as medicinal or preservatives composition. Fractionation and characterization of active molecules will be the future work to investigate.

7. The Effect of Pure Andrographolide Compound on Insulin Resistance Inbred Strain of Male Mice with High Fat Diet Condition
Hanaa A A, Goh Y M, May J A, Noordin M M, Ebrahimi M, Yasameen S G, Hafandi A A, Rajion M A
Abstract
The potential anti-diabetic effects of andrographolide have been reported in earlier work by other investigators. Therefore, the focus of the current work is on cellular and ultra-structural changes. associated with andrographolide intervention in insulin resistant mice. Most therapeutic agents for diabetes are able to reduce blood glucose level. Few therapeutic agents are capable of protecting and preserving the pancreatic cells mass, insulin sensitivity and hepatocellular, and adipocyte functions. Insulin resistant was induced in male mice using high fat diet (HFD) (10 % butter; 45% dietary energy from fat) where mice were fed for 24 weeks. The insulin resistance mice were divided into one control negative group (CN) with normal chow and three high fat diet groups, which were; control positive group HFD (CP), high fat diet group with andrographolide 25 mg/kg (HFA25), and high fat diet with andrographolide 50 mg/kg (HFA50) Following the induction of insulin resistance, andrographolide was administrated to HFA24, HFA50 groups respectively for 15 days by oral gavages. At the end of the treatment, mice were sacrificed; pancreas and liver were sectioned for histological study. The results showed that andrographolide exerted evident ameliorative effects on insulin sensitivity. There were also evidences pointing to the regeneration of beta cells and acini, reduced inflammation of pancreatic cells and liver, all of which nearly reverted to their normal structures. Therefore, it is concluded that the anti-insulin effects seen in andrographolide treatment is associated with restoration of insulin sensitivity

8. Methods of Enzyme Immobilization
Hassan Mohamed E, Tamer Tamer M, Omer Ahmed M
Abstract
Enzyme immobilization is a technique specifically designed to restrict the freedom of movement of an enzyme. Immobilization of enzymes is a common practice, mainly in order to minimize enzyme costs on the process economics by making it possible to reuse the enzyme many times and also minimize the operation cost as the immobilization technique may be modify the enzyme behavior, thus reducing the enzyme and product costs significantly. Many techniques have been used previously for enzyme immobilization, as entrapment, adsorption, covalent binding, encapsulation, and cross linking. Here we compare and contrast the basic properties of all immobilization methods.

9. Characterization of Metabolites Produced by E. Coli and Analysis of Its Chemical Compounds Using GC-MS
Nadia Altaee, Mohanad Jawad Kadhim, Imad Hadi Hameed
Abstract
Bioactives chemical compounds often referred to as secondary metabolites were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) techniques, then the in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity of the methanolic extract was evaluated. Twenty three bioactive compounds were identified in the methanolic extract of E. coli. GC-MS analysis of E. coli revealed the existence of the  Dodecanoic acid ,3-hydroxy, 13-Tetradecynoic acid , methyl ester, Octahydrochromen-2-one , Octahydrochromen-2-one , 12,15-Octadecadiynoic acid methyl ester, 9-Tetradecen-1-ol , acetate , (E) , Propanamine , 3-(methylthio) , H-Pyrrole  ,1-pentyl , N-[3-[N Aziridyl]propylidene tetrahydrofurfurylamine,  Cyclopentadecanone , Benzeneethanamine , 5H-Pyrindine , dl-Allo-cystathionine , Adenosine  ,4′-methylaminoformyl -4′-deshydroxymethyl-N- , Uric acid , Hexadecanol , 2-methyl,  Spiculesporic acid , N,N’ Bis(Carbobenzyloxy) lysine methyl ( ester) , Methoxyphenoxyformamide N-methyl-N-[4-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-2 , Oxime -,methoxy-phenyl , Acetamide , N-methyl-N-[4-[4- fluoro-1- hexahydropyridyl]-2-buty , Cyclohexane , 1R-acetamido-2,3-cis-epoxy-4-trans-acetoxy , N-t Butyl-N’-[1,1-dimethyl-2 , thiosulfatoethyl]-1,3- , Actinomycin C2. Cassia angustifolia (Crude) was very highly active (7.05±0.26) mm. E. coli produce many important secondary metabolites with high biological activities. Based on the significance of employing bioactive compounds in pharmacy to produce drugs for the treatment of many diseases, the purification of compounds produced by E. coli can be useful.

10. Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrum Analysis of Volatile Components of Methanolic Leaves Extract of Cordia Myxa
Hussein J Hussein, Jenan Mohammed Ubaid, Imad Hadi Hameed
Abstract
Medicinal plants have been used to treat human diseases for thousands of years because they have vast and diverse assortment of organic compounds that can produce a definite physiological action on the human body. The objectives of this study were analysis of the secondary metabolite products of methanolic leaf extract of Cordia myxa. The identification of bioactive chemical compounds is based on the peak area, retention time molecular weight and molecular formula. GC-MS analysis of Cordia myxa revealed the existence of the 2-[3-Cyclohexylaminopropylamino] ethylthiophosphate, Spiro[2.4]heptan-4-one, D-Glucose, 6-O-α-Dgalactopyranosyl, ε-N-Formyl-L-lysine, Dodecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy, Paromomycin, 2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, 10-Methyl-E-11-tridecen-1-ol propionate, 1,3-Dioxolane, 4-[[(2-methoxy-4-octadecenyl)oxy]methyl]-2,2, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, 6-Acetyl-β-d-mannose, E-9-Methyl-8-tridecen-2-ol, acetate, 4-Hexenal, 6-hydroxy-4-methyl-, dimethyl acetal, acetate ,( Z, α-D-Glucopyranoside, O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1.fwdarw.3)-β, 2-Cyclohexylpiperidine, Dodecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy, Cyclopentadecanone, 2-hydroxy, Ethyl iso- allocholate, 3-O-Methyl-d-glucose, 13-Heptadecyn-1-ol, Trans-13-Octadecenoic acid, Dasycarpidan-1-methanol , acetate  (ester, 5H-Cyclopropa[3,4]benz[1,2-e]azulen-5-one, 9-(acetyloxy)-3, α-Tocopheryl acetate.

11. A Comprehensive Review on Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Various Medicinal Plants
Rajesh Asija, Charanjeet Singh, Hemlata
Abstract
Hyperlipidemia is the greatest hazard factor of coronary heart disease. At present allopathic antihyperlipidemic drugs have been associated with large number of side effects. Herbal treatment for hyperlipidemia has no side effects and is relatively contemptible and locally available. Medicinal plants are the “backbone” of traditional medicine so considered as good source of life for all people due to its wealthy therapeutic properties and being 100% natural. Medicinal plants are extensively used by majority of populations to treat various diseases and have high impact on the world’s economy. Traditional therapeutic systems which mainly rely on plants, herbs and shrubs always played a fundamental role in the global health system. Natural products are generally less toxic, have less side effects and easily available so the requirement for herbal drugs is rising. The review article is undertaken to investigate the herbal Plants for antihyperlipidemic activity and various models use in this investigation. This review is specified on the anti- hyperlipidemic activity of the most recognizable therapeutic plants of medicine.