Volume7,Issue4

1. Chemical Constituents of Salacca wallichiana Mart.
Consolacion Y Ragasa, Jasmine U Ting, Maynard V Ramones, Maria Carmen S. Tan, Romeo R Lerom, Virgilio C. Linis, Chien-Chang Shen
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extracts of Salacca wallichiana Mart. led to the isolation of monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (1), β-sitosteryl-3β-glucopyranoside-6¢-O-fatty acid esters (2), β-sitosterol (3) and triacylglycerols (4) from the flesh of the fruit; 3 and β-sitosterone (5) from the female flower; a mixture of 3 and stigmasterol (6) from the roots and 2, 4 and linoleic acid (7) from the seeds.  The structures of 17 were identified by comparison of their NMR data with those reported in the literature.

Abstract Online: 1-May-2016
Article Online: 12-May-2016

2. Antiinflammatory Activity of Stem and Leaf of Myxopyrum serratulum A.W. Hill (Oleaceae)
Rajalakshmi K, Mohan V R
Abstract
In the present study antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extracts of stem and leaf of Myxopyrum serratulum were evaluated by carrageenan induced rat paw edema model in rats. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of ethanol extracts of stem and leaf showed the presence of alkaloid, catechin, coumarin, flavonoid, tannin, saponin, steroid, phenol, glycoside, terpenoid and xanthoprotein. Maximum inhibition (86.09%) was obtained at the dose of 400 mg kg-1 of M. serratulum stem after 3 hours of drug treatment in carrageenan induced paw edema, whereas, indomethocin produced 85.37% of inhibition. The present study suggests that M. serratulum stem and leaf extracts possess strong antiinflammatory property so it has immense scope as an effective source to develop drug for the treatment of inflammatory related diseases.

Abstract Online: 1-May-2016
Article Online: 12-May-2016

3. Inhibitive Effect of Zygophyllum album Extract on the Sulfuric Acid Corrosion of Mild Steel Grade Api 5l x52
Namoussa Tedjani Yahia, Ouahrani Mohammed Ridha, Laouini Salah Eddine
Abstract
Application of inhibitors to prevent corrosion is a widely accepted form of protection as it is one of the easily available methods. In recent years the usage of natural products as corrosion inhibitors is gaining momentum due to environmental considerations. Extract of Zygophyllum-album was investigated as corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 using conventional weight loss, electrochemical polarizations, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic studie. The weight loss results showed that the extract of Zygophyllum-album is excellent corrosion inhibitor. Electrochemical polarizations data revealed the mixed mode of inhibition. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that the change in the mpedance parameters, charge transfer resistance and double layer capacitance, with the change in concentration of the extract is due to the adsorption of active molecules leading to the formation of a protective layer on the surface of mild steel. Scanning electron microscopic studies provided the confirmatory evidence of improved surface condition, due to the adsorption, for the corrosion protection.

Abstract Online: 1-May-2016
Article Online: 12-May-2016

4. Cardiovascular Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors- A Review
Patil T R, Patil S, Patil A, Patil S T
Abstract
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are routinely prescribed for acid peptic diseases(APDs). They are also used in intensive care units as a prophylaxis against aspiration pneumonia. PPIs are often coprescribed with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antiplatelet agents. Although PPIs are safe they are not devoid of their adverse effects which comprises hypo or achlorhydria, interstitial nephritis, gastric tumours, nutritional deficiencies like hypomagnesaemia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia and that of Vit B 12. A major concern was raised when   adverse outcome was observed in patients receiving both PPI and clopidogrel in cases of myocardial infarction. This was attributed to the inhibition of CYP2C19 and failure of activation of clopidogrel which was eventually considered as an effect of genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19.Enhanced cardiovascular mortality was also observed when PPIs were used along with antiplatelet drugs like aspirin and ticagralor   which do not require CYP2C19 for their activation. Use of PPIs was thought to be the culprit for adverse cardiovascular outcome due to various possible causes like reduced myocardial contraction (negative inotropy), hypokalemia, hypomagnesaemia and hyperhomocysteinemia. Recently focus is centered on PPI induced inhibition of DDAH causing raised ADMA levels reflecting in to inhibition of eNOS and synthesis of eNO. NO is considered as vasoprotective and is an endogenous antiatherosclerotic   substance. Hence PPIs by inhibiting eNOS and eNO are likely to enhance mortality in patients with known cardiovascular diseases and even in healthy individuals when used in high parenteral doses or for prolonged period .Confirmation of association with adverse cardiovascular outcome needs further confirmation by extensive appropriate clinical trials. Till then clinicians need to be warned against indiscriminate use of PPIs

Abstract Online: 1-May-2016
Article Online: 12-May-2016

5. Qualitative Assessment of In Vitro Proteolytic Activity and Antifungal Susceptibility of Dermatophytes Recovered from Tinea capitis Patients
Essa Ajmi Alodeani
Abstract
Background: Tinea capitis is a global health related issues affecting both children and adolescent and necessitates characterization of causative agents, understanding of their pathogenesis and better drug of choice. Transmission of tinea capitis is well contributed by poor stander of living and hygiene, climatic conditions, and overcrowding as some of the predisposing factors. Objective: isolation and phenotypic characterization as well as qualitative assessment of proteolytic activity and antifungal susceptibility of recovered dermatophytes from the patients suffering from tinea capitis. Methodology: recovery of dermatophytes using SDA supplemented with chloramphenicol and cycloheximidine and DTM. Phenotypic characterization was accomplished by using morphological examination and biochemical tests like urease test and growth characters on Bromocresol Purple agar. Proteolytic activity was determined qualitatively using three different media such as keratin medium, casein agar and gelatin peptone agar. Antifungal susceptibility of dermatophytes was assessed by disk diffusion methods using four most commonly used antifungal agents (GRI-10 microgram/disk, TERB-01 microgram/disk, FLUC-2 microgram/disk and ITRA-10 microgram/disk). Results: total of 41 dermatophytes recovered. The most prevalent pathogen was found to be Microsporum canis (n=14 or 34.1%, male/female: 9/5) followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (n=10 or 24.3%, male/female: 6/4), Trichophyton violaceum (n=09 or 21.9%, male/female: 7/2), Trichophyton verrucosum (n=05 or 12.1%, male/female: 3/2) and Trichophyton rubrum (n=3 or 7.3%, male/female: 2/1) which is the least prevalent one. The male infection was found to be dominant over female infection. Infection in children less than 10 years of age was more the most prevalent. Terbinafine was found to be the most active one followed by griseofulvin while fluconazole was least active or inactive in case of most of the isolates. The most of the isolates exhibited good activity on keratin medium.. Conclusion: The most prevalent dermatophytes causing tinea capitis infection was found to be Microsporum canis followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton verrucosum and Trichophyton rubrum. Male and advanced age people are higher risk of tinea capitis. Keratin was the most suitable protein source for most of the dermatophytes which confirmed their pathogenesis and virulence. Terbinafine could be one of the best options of antifungal drugs for the treatment of tinea capitis followed by griseofulvin.

Abstract Online: 1-May-2016
Article Online: 12-May-2016

6. Local Knowledge of Katuk (Sauropus androgynus ( L. ) Merr) in East Java, Indonesia
Ari Hayati, Estri Laras Arumingtyas, Serafinah Indriyani, Luchman Hakim
Abstract
Katuk (Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr.) has been known to  increase the breast milk production since ancient time in Indonesia The aim of this study is describing the use of S. androgynus (L.) Merr. in some traditional societies in East Java. This study was done during 2013 to 2014 in East Java with a majority ethnical and traditional population. Sampling area community was chosen according to the appropriate altitude habitat of katuk. This research was conducted by using in-depth interviews with purposive sampling technique. The results showed variation in the use of katuk in 4 traditional societies in East Java. The highest utilization of katuk was found in Osing, followed by the Pandalungan society, Madura Island, and Java society of Mataraman. Katuk in traditional societies is used as vegetables that enhancing breast milk, relieve fever, cough, food coloring, goats feeding, and for the salvation ritual traditions.

Abstract Online: 12-July-2016
Article Online: 15-July-2016

7. Evaluation of Newly Formulated Polyherbal Antidiabetic Tablets in Alloxan Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats
Manandhar Suman, Shivalinge Gowda K P
Abstract
In this study rats were divided into 5 groups (n=6). Group I normal control, II received (Polyherbal Antidiabetic tablet) PHADT (400 mg /kg b.w p.o, III  alloxan (120mg/kg b.w i.p)  treated diabetic rats, IV alloxan +PHADT, V alloxan+Acarbose (20mg/kg bw p.o).The treatment is made for 15 days. The body weight, feed intake was measured daily, blood sugar level measured every 5th day. OGTT was estimated on 15th day. On 16th day the blood was withdrawn from retoorbital plexus and the serum was used for the lipid profile estimation. After scarification under overdose of ketamine, the liver and skeletal muscle glycogen was measured. The alloxan induced diabetic rats treated with PHADT, Acarbose showed significantly increased body weight, decreased feed intake, decreased blood sugar level, high postprandial glucose clearance and decreased serum lipid profile, increased skeletal muscle glycogen content when compared to alloxan induced diabetic rats (Group III). Significant regeneration of pancreatic β cells was observed in diabetic rats treated with PHADT, Acarbose. From this study, it can be concluded that Poly Herbal Anti Diabetic Tablet(PHADT) has anti-hyperglycemic activity as well as anti hyperlipidemic activity.

Abstract Online: 12-July-2016
Article Online: 15-July-2016

8. Chemical Constituents of Dioscorea Luzonensis Schauer
Consolacion Y Ragasa, Julian D Guardamano, Maria Carmen S Tan, Roque A Ulep, Ian A van Altena
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extracts of Dioscorea luzonensis Schauer. tubers led to the isolation of long chain alkyl trans-ferulates (1), a mixture of 1 and β-sitosterol (2), and fatty acids from the skin; and ursolic acid (3) and fatty acids from the inner portion. The structures of 13 were identified by comparison of their NMR data with literature data.

Abstract Online: 12-July-2016
Article Online: 15-July-2016

9. Preparation and Evaluation of Nutraceutical Formulation for Ulcer Healing Activity
Marina G Dsouza, Vivek V Byahatti
Abstract
Herbs, vegetables and fruits are being considered to be the potential source for treating and controlling various ailments. “Let food be thy medicine and medicine thy food” the tenet by Hippocrates is presently receiving great interest.  In this contest the concept of functional food is highly appreciated.  Functional foods are “food or food ingredient which provides both health and nutritional benefits.” The purpose of the present study is to formulate and evaluate a formulation containing nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of peptic ulcers.  Factors like H.pylori infection, consumption of NSAID’s, alcohol, tumors of the acid producing cells, smoking, chewing tobacco contributes for peptic ulcers. It is affecting millions of individuals worldwide.   Conventional treatment includes the drugs which reduce the rate of gastric acid secretion, drugs which protects the mucus membrane that lines the GIT or the drugs which eliminates Helicobacter pylori.  In most of these cases adverse reactions and incidence of relapse has been observed. The concern is to introduce safer drugs with maximum therapeutic effect, without adverse reactions.  In the present study a formulation (PHF-1) containing selected functional foods which acts by various mechanisms to prevent and treat ulcers was developed and evaluated for its efficacy against ethanol induced gastric ulcers.  Antiulcer potential was assessed by determining ulcer index, gastric pH, gastric juice volume and total acidity.  The formulation was found to be on par with standard drug Sucralfate. The findings suggest that the formulation is worth as an alternative treatment for gastric ulcer.

Abstract Online: 12-July-2016
Article Online: 15-July-2016

10. Influences of Glutathione S-Transferase Gene (GSTT1, GSTM1) Polymorphisms in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Menha Swellam, Magda Sayed Mahmoud, Tamer E Mosa, Aly K Mohamed
Abstract
Background: Genetic variations in glutathione -S- transferase (GST), a gene that encodes carcinogenic metabolizing enzymes, could account for a proportion in leukemia. Authors investigated the genotyping polymorphism in glutathione –S-transferase mu1 (GSTM1) and theta 1 (GSTT1) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). By using multiplex PCR, GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms were genotyped in 153 ALL adult patients and 90 healthy individuals served as control. Results: Of the 153 ALL patients, 78.4% and 33.3% showed homozygous deletions in GSTT1 and GSTM1, respectively. Significant association (P<0.0001) was reported between ALL patients (78.4%) as compared to controls (21.6%) regarding the GSTT1 genotype polymorphism. Combination between the two candidate genotypes revealed significant level when deletions of the two genes were reported in ALL (relative risk =4.5, OR=61 and 95%CI= 6.7 – 599) as compared to control group. Conclusion: Null GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotypes are associated with the risk of developing ALL.

Abstract Online: 12-July-2016
Article Online: 15-July-2016