Volume8,Issue1

1. Effect of pH Dependent Extraction in Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activity of Leaf Extract from Phoenix dactylifera L
Rouiha Zohra, Ouahrani Mohammed Redha, Laouini Salah Eddine
Abstract
Leaf of Phoenix dactylifera L is a rich source of natural bioactive compounds, which serve many functions in human body and prevent food from oxidation processes.  The study aimed to optimize the pH extraction medium of polyphenol from Phoenix dactylifera L using different system for pH 3 to pH 7 was carried out. In addition, influence of pH medium extraction on phenolic content, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanin, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.  The total phenolic content measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method was as well conducted. Antioxidant efficacies of different pH extracts were estimated by their abilities to scavenge ABTS and FRAP. It was observed that phenolic content increased from pH 5 at 6, and the pH effects on the composition extraction process were illustrated. For the antioxidant activity, similar results are observed.  The high anti-inflammatory activity founded for weak acid (pH 5 and 6). The optimum pH value of medium aqueous extraction it is 6.

2. Pharmacognostic Standardization and Free Radical Scavenging Evaluation of Meripilus giganteus (Pers.) P. Karst., A Potential Medicinal Mushroom
Acharya K, Khatua S, Pal S
Abstract
Meripileus giganteus (Meripilaceae), also known as “giant polypore” is considered as a functional food and source of health promoting medicines. However, scientific parameters for identification and assertion of purity of the exact fungal material are not yet available. In this backdrop, the present investigation was undertaken to determine pharmacognostic properties of this wild mushroom. Different requisite parameters including organoleptic characters, microscopic studies and fluorescence behaviour of powdered crude drug were analyzed. In addition, phytochemical screening, HPLC finger print profiling and antioxidant activity of methanol extract were also evaluated. Microscopic studies revealed the presence of monomitic hyphae with simple septa; clavate basidia with a basal clamp; ellipsoid to sub-globose spores etc. Furthermore, phytochemical analysis revealed that the methanol fraction was enriched with several myco-constituents such as phenol, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene; while the chromatogram identified 11 peaks which might be of phenolic compounds. Besides, the extract displayed strong antioxidant potentiality as evident by low EC50 value in DPPH radical scavenging activity (0.4 mg/ml) and high ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE) antioxidant capacity (27.5 µg AAE/mg of extract). In summary, this is the first report on the pharmacognostic studies of M. giganteus which will be beneficial as referential information for correct identification and characterization of crude drug.

3. Medicinal Plants: Antibacterial Effects and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil of Foeniculum vulgare
Azadeh Foroughi, Pouya Pournaghi, Fariba Najafi, Akram Zangeneh, Mohammad Mahdi Zangeneh, Rohallah Moradi
Abstract
Medicinal plants are considered modern resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in demeanor of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (FV) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry was done to specify chemical composion. As a screen test to detect antibacterial properties of the essential oil, agar disk and agar well diffusion methods were employed. Macrobroth tube test was performed to determinate MIC. The results indicated that the most substance found in FV essential oil was Trans-anethole (47.41 %), also the essential oil of FV with 0.007 g/ml concentration has prevented P. aeruginosa and with 0.002 g/ml concentration has prevented B. subtilis from the growth. Thus, the research represents the antibacterial effects of the medical herb on test P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis. We believe that the article provide support to the antibacterial properties of the essential oil. The results indicate the fact that the essential oil from the plant can be useful as medicinal or preservatives composition.

4. Quercetin Ameliorate Oxidative Stress-Induced Small Intestine Toxicity by Mefenamic Acid
Ika Kustiyah Oktaviyanti, Iskandar Thalib, Eko Suhartono
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to determine the involvement of oxidative stress and the ameliorative effect of quercetin (QUR) on mefenamic acid-induced small intestine toxicity by measuring the level of superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), protein carbonylation (PC), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs). In this experiment, a small intestine was taken from male rats (Rattus novergicus). Samples then homogenized and divided into three groups with; T1 served as control which contains small intestine homogenate only; T2 which contains small intestine homogenate + 500 mg of mefenamic acid; and T3 which contains small intestine homogenate + 500 mg of mefenamic acid + 250 mg/L of quercetin. After treatment, every 15-minute superoxide radical, H2O2, PC, and AOPPs levels were estimated. The results revealed that mefenamic acid increased the level of superoxide radical, H2O2, PC, and AOPPs, while QUR decreases the level of all parameters. These results indicated that mefenamic acid induce small intestine toxicity through oxidative stress mechanisms as can be seen from the increasing of superoxide radical, H2O2, PC, and AOPPs levels. Also, the results indicated that QUR could inhibit these process as can be seen from the decreasing of all parameters.

5. Synthesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Some -5-Ethoxy-2-Mercapto Benzimidazole Derivatives
Raad H Turkey, Ammar A Razzak Mahmood kubba, Ammar A Fadhil, Nada N Al-Shawi
Abstract
This article includes a description of new series of 5-ethoxy-2-mercapto benzimidazole derivatives, synthesized and evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activity; the synthesis involved the reaction of the parent nucleus (5-ethoxy-2-mercapto benzimidazole) with different p-phenacyl bromide substituents. All the newly synthesized compounds were screened for their anti-inflammatory activity by egg albumin-induced rat hind paw edema method.

6. Molecular Characterization of Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Clinical Samples
Ibtisam Habeeb AL-Azawi, Aqeel Reheeum Hassan, Alaa Hamza Jaber
Abstract
A total of 49 different clinical samples (urine n=30, stool n=10, and blood n=8) were collected from patient admitted to the Al-Sadder medical City in Al-Najaf Governorate-Iraq. The results demonstrated that 49 specimens (100%) were diagnosed as E. coli by cultural, biochemical characteristics and Vitek2® system. Polymerase Chain Reaction has been used to detect of some genes which coding antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolates. Regarding genes that responsible for ESBL enzymes (blaCTX-M, blaOXA and blaTEM), the current results proved that blaTEM genes have highest rate (97.95%) followed by blaTEM and blaOXA (93.75%) for each.

7. The Antibacterial of Essential   Fatty Acid   Semicarbazide   Extracted from Flaxseed Oil Against Some Nosocomial Infection Bacteria in Iraq
Ahmad Ayad Hady, Mayada F Darweesh, Ahmad A Motar
Abstract
During the period from December 2014 to July 2015, isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria from clinical sources attending to AL-Hakeem Hospital and AL-Sadder Medical City in AL-Najaf province. A total of One hundred clinical samples from various sources included: UTI – patients, Burn, postoperative surgery site –Wound, The results revealed the occurrence (52) bacterial isolate were isolated, 37(71%) were gram– positive bacteria that was divided into S. aureus 20(39%), S. pyogen 9 (17%), and S. pneumonia 8 (15%). But only 15 (29%) was gram – negative bacteria which represented by E. coli 7(13%), and P.aeruginasa  4 (8%),  Protuse mirabilis 4(8%). The susceptibility of S. aureus and E.coli bacteria which are consider the most common G+ve and G-ve nosocomial pathogen  to routenly used antibiotic in Najaf  hospitals  were tested by using antibiotic susceptibility pattrons, in order to select one isolate from S.aureus and other one from E.coli which had the higher resistance to most antibiotic  for continue the other steps of these study. The result illustrated that S.aureus No.5 and  E. coli  No.3 were greatly resistant to antibiotics, so regard  as  multi-drug resistant(MDR). Crud extracts of Linum usitatissimum which had been extracted by three solvents (petroleum ether, hexan and aqueous), for studying the chemical contents of these extracts by using suitable reagents and tested antibacterial activity on the growth of studied S.aureus and  E. coli bacteria. The extraction of Essential fatty acid Semicarbazide (omega-3-6-fatty acid) from Linum usitatissium (Flax seed) and the chemical and physical properties of isolated oil compounds were studied by using thin layer chromatography (TLC), ultraviolet spectrum (UV) and FTIR spectrum. The result revealed that shown high antibacterial activity against studied (S.aureus, E.coli). results explained broad spectrum antibacterial property of oil compounds against studied bacteria nosocomial.

8. Sterile Gel Propolis Trigona Spp as Drug for Wound Burns
Kurniawansyah I S, Budiman A, Abdassah M, Mita S R, Farihah R N
Abstract
Background: Propolis is a natural resin that was collected and used by bees Trigona spp to build and maintain its nest, is a good candidate to treat burns. Propolis used as a healing wound since the late 19th century in battle caused by of the nature of antiviral, antioxidant, antimicrobes, and anti-inflammatory and it contains potential activity of healing scar from Propolis that has been developed by using extract Propolis into the shape of preparation that was portable, effective and comfortable. Purpose: Research aims to understand the efficacy of sterile gel Propolis Trigona spp in healing of wound burns. Method: Effectiveness test of wound burns was conducted with the method morton using animal experiments of the white rabbit female race New Zealand, where the percentage of healing observed from first day until the day of 38th. Result: The effectiveness of sterile gel preparation that have been made shows that 69,86 % given by formulation 3 (F3) which was contain 10 % of extract Propolis Trigona spp, while the percentage healing for control negative with 53,42 %. Conclusion: Propolis Trigona spp having an aspect of strategic and economic value in handling wound burns with raw standard materials that could potentially work as a product of superior medicinal herb and having high economic competitiveness based on Indonesian natural resources.

9. Alangium salvifolium (Linn. F) Wang: A Phytopharmacological Review
Jasvir Kaur, Rajmeet Singh, Jaswinder Kaur, Harpreet Kaur
Abstract
Alangium salvifolium (Linn. F) Wang. is a small deciduous tree or shrub, which grow in the wild throughout the hotter parts of the India. It belongs to the family Alangiaceae. It is used as laxative, astringent, pungent, anthelminthic, purgative, emetic, anti protozoal, hypoglycemic activity, anti diabetic and for anti ulcer activity. The plant was also reported as antifungal activity, anti diabetic activity, antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, cardiac activity and anti fertility activity. This activity of the plant possess due to the important phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids and steroids etc.

10. Evaluation of Respect for Patient’s Rights from the Viewpoint of Hospitalized Surgical Patinents in Shohada Ashayer Hospital of Khorramabad City, Iran in 2015-2016
Ghafar Ali Mahmoudi, Hormuz Mahmoudvand, Mahin Adeli, Amin Taghadosi, Mahmoud Bahmani
Abstract
One of the most important branches of medical science, until past time, law and consequently to medical ethics. Patients’ satisfaction of their rights, one of the most important indicators of effectiveness, efficiency, productivity and quality of healthcare services. The goal of this study was to Check the Observance of the rights of patients in surgical patients admitted to Shohaday Ashayer hospital in 2015-2016 from the perspective of patients. This cross-sectional study included 800 patients admitted to Shohada Ashayer Hospital in 2015 and 2016. Respecting patient’s bill of rights from their viewpoint was determined by a questionnaire using a Likert scale from one (strongly disagree) to five (strongly agree). The results obtained in this study showed that the rate of patients’ rights in all aspects of the %15.8 patient’s view was poor, from the %67.4 patient’s perspective was middle, and from the %16.8 patient’s view was good. Most patients’ satisfaction with their rights in respect to the axis of the right to choose and decide freely and the lowest levels of satisfaction was at the core of respect for patient privacy and confidentiality principle. Level of satisfaction in all axes was significantly associated with age, type of substrate in the third axis, history of hospitalization in the fourth axis and duration of hospital stay in the second axis(P<0.O5). Between gender and place of residence and educational level found no significant relaion(P>O.O5). In total, based on the obtained results and comparing them with the results of other studies, it may be concluded that respecting patient’s bill of rights from the viewpoint of patients is considered as optimal and to enhance the implementation of the Charter as well as patient satisfaction is essential that solutions be identified barriers to implementation.

11. A Review – Herbs in Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
Khan Nilofar, Yevale Rupali, Pravin Jagtap, Pritam Juvatkar, Kale Mohan
Abstract
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) affects various part of the urinary tract. When it affects the lower part it is known as a bladder infection and when it affects the upper part it is known as kidney infection clinically, presence of more than 1 Lakh organisms per ml of midstream sample of urine (MSU) is an indication of urinary tract infection. A pain and burning feeling when you urinate, Urethral discharge containing pus or mucus, Frequent and urgent need to urinate especially at night, Obstructed urinary flow, Lower back pain, Unexplained fever, Cloudy urine with visible blood are the common symptoms of UTI. Cranberry, blue berry, berberine, bearberry, buchu oil etc are found to be effective in urinary tract infection. The fimbriae of E.coli produce two types of adhesins such as mannose sensitive and mannose resistant adhesins that attach to receptors on uroepithelial cells. Proanthocyanidin obtained from cranberry, blueberry etc   shows extreme inhibitory activity against mannose-resistant adhesins. In bearberry the active antimicrobial activity is shown by aglycone hydroquinone which is released in alkaline urine. Buchu leaf is a diuretic and urinary tract antiseptic Urinary tract antiseptic activity is may be due to its essential oil. The essential oil consists mainly of the monoterpene diosphenol.

12. Development and Validation of a Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Determination of Imatinib Mesylate
Y Rajesh Babu, N Appalaraju
Abstract
The aim of this paper was to develop and validate the stability indicating RP-HPLC method for the determination of Imatinib mesylate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. A simple, accurate, precise, sensitive and stability indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed for the determination of Imatinib mesylate in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form, in which separations are done using develosil C18, 5μm, 150 × 4.6mm i.d. column at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min with an injection volume of 20μL. The beer’s law was obeyed over the concentration range of 5 – 35μg/mL. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.996 and it showed good linearity, reproducibility, precision in this concentration range. The % recovery values were found to be within the limits, which showed that the method was accurate. The LOD and LOQ were calculated using statistical methods. The % RSD values were less than 2. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of Imatinib mesylate in pharmaceutical dosage form. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained by using the standard method.

13. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil and its Fractions of Lavandula stoechas L. From Morocco
Ez zoubi Yassine, El Ouali Lalami Abdelhakim, Bousta Dalila, Polissiou Moschos, Daferera Dimitra, Lachkar Mohammed, El Khanchoufi Abdessalam, Farah Abdellah
Abstract
The emerging multi-drug resistance in food borne pathogens and consumers demand for minimally processed fresh natural foods has paved the path for natural antimicrobials and antioxidants to be used in food industry. This work investigates the chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of essential oils of Lavandula stoechas and its fractions which were obtained from the Lavandula stoechas using apparatus Glass Oven B-585. GC/MS analysis of Lavandula stoechas essential oil has led to the identification of 27 components, of which camphor, fenchone, camphene, borneol, α-Pinene and 1,8-cineole, were the major components. Fractions 1 and 2 have displayed qualitative similarities; fraction 3 has showed a different chemical profile characterized by the presence of various oxygenated sesquiterpenes. In DPPH assay, the IC50 value of Lavandula stoechas and its fractions have varied between 0.8 and 1.6 µg/ml, while phosphomolybdenum assay of essential oils of Lavandula steochas, fraction 1, 2 and 3 have showed values in the order of 79 ± 4.4, 73.7 ± 3.7, 76.2 ± 5.5 and 148.2 ± 6.2 μg/ml respectively. The essential oil of Lavandula steochas was very active against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria spp. Fractions 1 and 2 were moderately active, however fraction 3 recorded a weak effect against all bacteria’s. The Chloromphenicol antibiotic was very active against all bacteria’s, Gentamycin has expressed average activity against pathogens but the Penicillin has showed poor activity. Our results suggest that essential oils of Lavandula stoechas and fraction 3 demonstrated interesting biological properties that suggest its use as a new potential source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

14. In Vitro Diabetogenic Effect of Cadmium on Liver
Agung Biworo, Dwi Rezki Amalia, Gratianus Billy Himawan, Lisda Rizky Amalia, Valentina Halim, Eko Suhartono
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of cadmium (Cd) on glucose metabolism disruption in liver cells homogenate in vitro. The glucose metabolism disruption was analyzed by measuring the level of liver glucose, glycogen and methylglyoxal (MG), and the activity of glucokinase activity. In this experiment, a liver sample was taken from male rats (Rattus novergicus). Samples then homogenized and divided into four groups with; C served as control which contains liver homogenate only; T1 which contains liver homogenate + 0.03 mg/l of cadmium sulphate (CdSO4); T2 which contains liver homogenate + 0.3 mg/l of CdSO4; and T3 which contains liver homogenate + 3 mg/l of CdSO4. After treatment, liver glucose, glycogen, and MG levels, and glucokinase activity were estimated. The activity of liver glucokinase was estimated by measuring the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) value. The results revealed that Cd exposure could significantly increase glucose and MG levels, the Km value of glucokinase, and decreased the glycogen level in liver cells (P<0.05). These results indicated that Cd exposure induced the disruption of glucose metabolism in the liver.

15. Experimental Investigation of Human Teeth Demineralization by Three Different Water Treatment
Rosihan Adhani, Widodo, Didit Aspriyanto, Lisda Hayatie, Eko Suhartono
Abstract
In this present study, we try to investigate the effect of three different water to the demineralization of several tooth minerals, such as calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), and fluor (F). Tooth samples were taken from 24 human maxillary premolars 1 free of caries and defects. All the tooth samples were extracted in Dental Faculty, University of Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. A water sample is taken from Martapura river, and households that used a tap and well water in Martapura, Banjar District, South Kalimantan, Indonesia with pH value around 5.8, 6.99, and 7.11 respectively. For the control, we used an aquades with the pH value is about 7.2. Tooth samples then divided into four groups with; C served as control; T1 which submerge the tooth in river water; T2 which submerge the tooth in tap water; and T3 which submerge the tooth in a well water. The treatment lasts for 4 days, and each day the demineralization rate constant and regression coefficient of Ca, Mg, P, and F was analyzed. Generally, the tooth submersion in river water increased the demineralization rate constant of all tooth minerals that investigated in this study. The results also show that the treatment shows a negative correlation with demineralization process of all tooth minerals. The results of this present study indicated that all treatment can cause the demineralization of tooth mineral such as, Ca, Mg, P, and F. The highest demineralization rate was found in the treatment with river water than another treatment.