1.TREATMENT APPROACHES FOR MANAGEMENT OF INVASIVE FUNGAL INFECTION: A REVIEW Rajesh Asija, Rashmi khanijau, Santosh Chopra
Over the past few years the invasive fungal infections (IFIs) incidences has increased as the populations of patients at risk have continued to rise due to current situation in covid. Earlier diagnosis and the subsequent usage of appropriate antifungal therapy become difficult, these leads to a high mortality rate in patients with IFI management. Along with the widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis, the epidemiology of invasive fungal pathogens has also changed. Non-albicans fungus, Non-fumigatus fungus genus, and molds aside from fungus genus became additional common pathogens inflicting invasive diseases, and most of those rising fungi are proof against or less inclined than others to plain antifungal agents. Therefore, invasive infections to these previously rare fungi are tougher to treat. Advances in more potent and less toxic antifungal agents, such as second-generation triazoles and echinocandins, may potentially improve the outcomes of these infections. This reviews shows the different spectrum of invasive fungal infections and the introduction of recent available antifungal agents.
2. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS Manish Kumar Gupta, Saurabh Sharma, Manish Gupta, Priya Sen
The convenience of administration and improved patient compliance are essential in the design of oral drug delivery system which remains the preferred route of drug delivery instead of various limitations. Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have gained ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. These techniques give the disintegration of tablet rapidly and dissolve in mouth within one-minute seconds without chewing and the need of water, which is advantageous mainly for pediatrics, geriatrics and patients having problem in swallowing tablets and capsules. Formulation of a suitable dosage form for administration, by bearing swallowing difficulty and poor patient compliance, leads to development of orally disintegrating tablets. The conventional preparation methods are spray drying, freeze drying, direct compression, molding and sublimation while new technologies have been developed for the production of orodispersible tablets.
3. SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF POORLY WATER- SOLUBLE DRUGS USING SOLID DISPERSION METHOD: A REVIEW Manish Kumar Gupta, Pallavi, Priya Sen, Manish Gupta
Solid dispersions have attracted considerable interest as an efficient means of improving the dissolution rate and hence the bioavailability of a range of poorly water-soluble drugs. Up to 40% of new chemical entities discovered by the pharmaceutical industry today are poorly soluble or lipophilic compounds. Solid dispersions of poorly water-soluble drugs with water-soluble carriers reduce the incidence of these problems and enhanced dissolution. Solid dispersion is one of the most promising approaches for solubility enhancement. The term solid dispersion refers to a group of solid products consisting of at least two different components, generally a hydrophilic matrix and a hydrophobic drug. The matrix can be either crystalline or amorphous. As per biopharmaceutical classification system, Class II drugs with low solubility and high permeability are the promising candidates for improvement of bioavailability by solid dispersion. In this review, it is intended to discuss about the recent advances related to the area of solid dispersion.
4. FORMULATION AND EVALUATIONS OF MOUTH DISSOLVING FILM USING NATURAL EXCIPIENTS Manish Kumar Gupta, Sakshi Priya, Sudharshana Singh, Sunil Verma
Mouth dissolving film (MDFs) is the latest oral solid dosage form because of its easy-to-use properties. When mouth dissolving films are placed in mouth, it disintegrates and dissolves within a minute without consuming water or chewing. This dosage form has added advantage as it allows the medication to bypass the first pass metabolism, so bioavailability of medication may be enhanced. Mouth dissolving film has capability to enhance onset of action, lower the dosing and eliminate the fear of chocking. Over the past years, MDFs have appeared as effective oral care products as dosage forms for delivering vitamins, in the form of breath strips, and personal care products. Today fast dissolving films are viewed as latest options for enhanced systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs as well. Formulation of mouth dissolving films involves both the visual and performance characteristics as plasticized hydrocolloids, API, taste masking agents are being laminated by solvent casting and semisolid casting method. Nowadays, Mouth dissolving films are also prepared by using natural excipients. Natural polysaccharide extracted from tubers of Colocassia esculenta (also called as taro gum) has been utilised as a polymer for film formulation along with semisynthetic polymer HPMC (Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose). Also, the films using established natural polymers namely xanthan gum, guar gum, gum ghati and sodium alginate are formulated in combination with HPMC. The natural polymers are comparatively cheaper with desired properties like abundantly availability, non-irritating and non-toxic in nature. The utilisation of natural polysaccharides contributes to favourable changes in different properties like disintegration time, tensile strength, and In-vitro drug release. This review gives an idea about formulation techniques, evaluation parameters, overview on packaging and some available marketed products of mouth dissolving films.
5. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BILAYER TABLETS FOR SUSTAINED RELEASE Manish Kumar Gupta, Madhvi Ghadge, Sunil Verma, Sudharshana Singh
Bi-layer tablet is a new era for successful development of controlled release formulation along with various features to provide successful drug delivery. Bilayer layer tablets consist of two layers which are slow release and immediate release layers. It is an improved technology to overcome the shortcoming of the single layer tablets and offer more benefits. The bilayer tablet helps to separate incompatible active pharmaceutical ingredient (APIs) from each other. Bilayer tablets material involves both the compressibility and consolidation. Bilayer formulations carry different drugs in each layer and deliver each of them without any pharmacokinetic or dynamic interactions, with their individual rate of delivery. Controlled release dosage forms have been extensively used to improve therapy with several important drugs.