Volume8,Issue2

1.Uses of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Technique in Pharmaceutical Analysis: A Review
Imad Hadi Hameed, Abeer Fauzi Al-Rubaye, Mohanad Jawad Kadhim
Abstract
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation. Many scientific techniques exploit NMR phenomena to study molecular physics, crystals, and non-crystalline materials through nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. NMR phenomena are also utilized in low-field NMR, NMR spectroscopy and MRI in the Earth’s magnetic field (referred to as Earth’s field NMR), and in several types of magnetometers. Modern NMR spectroscopy has been emphasizing the application in biomolecular systems and plays an important role in structural biology. NMR spectroscopy is very important to identify a drug or an excipient, evaluate the level of impurities (and to elucidate the structure), observe the course of a decomposition, to evaluate residual solvents, determine the isomeric composition, i.e. the ratio of diastereomers and the enantiomeric excess by means of chiral additive, assess a single drug or drug composition, characterize a polymer mostly being a mixture and used as excipients, identify counter ions (if of organic origin and having protons), characterize an entire formulation, e.g. a tablet. Fundamentals of quantitative NMR spectroscopy NMR spectroscopy can be considered as a primary ratio method of measurement being characterized by the fact that the ratio of substances can be determined directly from the physical context of the measurement without referencing to another substance. NMR has become one of the most powerful and versatile spectroscopic techniques for the analysis of biomacromolecules, allowing characterization of biomacromolecules and their complexes up to 100 kDa. Together with X-ray crystallography.

2. Effect of Planting Rhizome Weight on Growth and Chemical Constituents of Turmeric Varieties
Mohamed M A, Mahfouz S A, Ibrahim M E
Abstract
Curcuma sp, has an economic importance in several cases. This work was conducted to study the effect of weight of rhizome on growth, yield of turmeric, and its chemical components. Pieces of rhizomes with different weights were cultivated (10, 20, and 30g) of two varieties of Curcuma sp. (Curcuma domestica and Curcuma aromatic). Data revealed that, the pieces of the highest weight produced the stronger plants in the two varieties, so the highest weight of pieces produced the heaviest rhizomes. Also total carbohydrates, essential oil and curcumine yield markedly enhanced with the increasing in the weight of piece rhizome.

3. Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Evaluation of Trichosanthes dioica (R.)
Nitin Kumar, Girendra Gautam, Anurag Chaudhary
Abstract
Trichosanthes dioica seeds are mentioned in various traditional texts as a drug used for vermicidal anthelmintic, insecticidal, sedative, diuretic, demulcent, and expectorant purpose ethnopharmacologically. The studies were taken up to evaluate pharmacognostic, physicochemical & phytochemical standard for Trichosanthes dioica seeds. The objective of present study is to evaluate the morphological, microscopical, phytochemical and physicochemical properties of various bioactive compounds present in Trichosanthes dioica seeds. Preliminary phytochemical screening was done and HPTLC studies were carried out. CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat V applicator, TLC scanner, and WIN CATS-4 software were used. The microscopical studies of T. dioica seeds have showed mucilaginous epidermis made up of long thin trichomes, Innermost layer of parenchyma cells and sclerotic endodermal layer. Testa is 17-23 cells thick on the sides on the seeds. Exotesta: a layer shortly columnar pulpy cells, much elongate on the sides of micropyle thin walled but with fine fibrillar thickenings (not lignified) on the radial and inner wall, the outer wall thickened and slightly lignified, first filled with starch grains. Physico-chemical studies of T. dioica seeds have set the some standard i.e. Ether soluble extractive value 16.15%w/w, alcohol soluble extractive value 10.11% w/w, water soluble extractive value 9.22% w/w, Total Ash value 6.21 w/w, acid insoluble ash value 1.32% w/w, water soluble ash value 4.29% & loss on drying 24.33% w/w etc. were found out. Preliminary phytochemical screening was done then TLC and HPTLC studies were carried out. All the findings will be useful towards establishing pharmacognostic standards on identification, purity, quality and classification of the plant, which is gaining relevance in plant drug research for the identification and preparation of monograph of plant.

4. An Overview of the Most Important Medicinal Plants Native to Iran by Property of Burn Wound Healing: A Systematic Review
Mehrdad Karimi, Mahnaz Mardani, Leila Mahmoodnia
Abstract
Burn is an injury where the skin is destroyedby various factors such as heat, cold, electricity, etc.When skin injuryoccurs, pathogens can invade the body and burn wounds get infected shortly after the damage. The wound healing process is a process done by the coordination of tissues, cells and various factors. In the acute phase, inflammatory mechanism of burns has negative effects due to capillary leak. On the other hand, in the later stages of burn,inflammation is necessary for wound healing. Silver nitrate, silver sulfadiazine, and Mafenide acetate are also used for wound care. These compounds cause delayed wound healing and have cytotoxic effects. Iran is among the countries that have rich traditional medicine and herbal treatment of burn wounds in history. Therefore, in this review article, we tried to report the medicinal plants native to Iran which are effective for burn wounds. In this review article, by searching databases such as Scopus, Google Scholar, Spy DVD, mag Iran and… the articles were searched by searching keywords including burn wounds, herbs, extracts, essences and Iran. After finally searching, it was determined that medicinal plants below are the most important medicinal plants native to Iran that affect burn wounds. 11 Medicinal herbs 11 Abukhalsa plant, chamomile, oak, hungry for love, green tea, purslane, cinnamon, Hypericum, and Commiphora are the most important Medicinal Plants which are effective for burn wound healing in Iran. Alkanin, Naphthoquinone and Shikonin, tannins, pectin, alkaloids, saponins and tannins fixed, resin and vitamin C, flavonoids rutin, aucubin and catalpolCatechin, Epicatechin, EpicatechinGallate, Epigallocatechin and Epigallocatechin-gallate, oxalic acid, Cinnamic acid, caffeic acid , maleic acid, Citric acid, coumarin, flavonoids, alanine, tannins, alpha-linolenic acid, cinnamic acid, phenolic compounds such as eugenol, and safrolephellandrene, terpene compounds such as limonene and linalool, trans-cinnamaldehyde (MDA), tannins, coumarin, resin, Cinema-hydroxy phenyl propane compounds such as formaldehyde and mannitol, curcumin, terpenoids, steroids, Flavonoids, lignans are active compounds of plant bioactive substances that are effective on burn wound healing.

5. In Vitro Antifunal Potential of Morganella morganii and Determination of its Chemical Composition by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Sabreen A Kamal
Abstract
Bioactives were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) techniques, then the in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity of the methanolic extract was evaluated. GC-MS analysis of Morganella morganii  revealed the existence of the   Tricyclo[4.3.1.1(3.8)]undecan-1-amine, 3-Methoxybenzaldehyde semicarbazone, carboxaldehyde , 1-methyl-,oxime ,(Z)-(+), 1,5,5-Trimethyl-6-methylene-cyclohexene, 4-(2,5-Dihydro-3-methoxyphenyl)butylamine, Paromomycin , 9-Borabicyclo[3.31]nonane , 9-mercapto-, Benzenemethanol , 2-(2-aminopropoxy)-3-methyl, Acetamide , N-(6-acetylaminobenzothiazol-2-yl)-2-(adamantan, rin-6-carboxylic acid , 4-(2,5-Dihydro-3-methoxyphenyl)butylamine, N-(2,5-Dicyano-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrol-2-yl)-acetamide, 3,10-Dioxatricyclo [4.3.1.0(2,4)]dec-7-ene, 3-Cyclohex-3-enyl-propionic acid, Eicosanoic acid ,phenylmethyl ester, 3,7-Diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane , 9,9-dimethyl-, Dithiocarbamate , S-methyl-,N-(2-methyl-3-oxobutyl)-, dl-Homocysteine, 2-(2-Furyl)pyridine, 1,7-Dioxa-10-thia-4,13-diazacyclopentadeca-5,9,12-trione, 5,7-Dodecadiyn-1,12-diol, 1-(β-d-Arabinofuranosyl)-4-O-difluoromethyluracil, Uric acid, Pyrrolo[1.2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione , hexahydro-,12-Methyl-oxa-cyclododecan-2-one, Phthalic acid , butyl undecyl ester, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid , 2,3-bis(acetyloxy)propyl ester, 1,2,4-Trioxolane-2-octanoic acid 5-octyl-, methyl ester, 12-Dimethylamino-10-oxododecanoic acid , Octahydrochromen-2-one, L-Aspartic acid , N-glycyl-,2H-Oxecin-2-one , 3,4,7,8,91,10-hexahydro-4-hydroxy-10-meth , Thiazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine-5,7(4H,6H)-dione , 2-amino-4-(2-ph, Dec-9-en-6-oxo-1-ylamide, 3,6,12-Trimethyl-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaaza-cyclooctadecane, 2-lodohiistidine, 2,5-Piperazinedione ,3,6-bis(2-methylpropyl)-, 9-Octadecenamide , (Z)-, 3′,8,8′-Trimethoxy-3-piperidyl-2,2′-binaphthalene-1,1′,4,4′-tetra. Citrullus colocynthis (Crude) was very highly active (6.39±0.27) mm. The results of anti-fungal activity produced by Morganella morganii showed that the volatile compounds were highly effective to suppress the growth of Aspergillus terreus (5.613±0.23). Morganella morganii produce many important secondary metabolites with high biological activities. Based on the significance of employing bioactive compounds in pharmacy to produce drugs for the treatment of many diseases, the purification of compounds produced by Morganella morganii can be useful.

6. Phytochemical Profiles of Methanolic Seeds Extract of Cuminum cyminum using GC-MS Technique
Abeer Fauzi Al-Rubaye, Mohanad Jawad Kadhim, Imad Hadi Hameed
Abstract
The aims of this study were identify the chemical components as well as anti-microbial activities of the methanolic seeds extract of Cuminum cyminum. GC-MS analysis revealed the existence of the Benzene , 1,1′-oxybis[4-phenoxy- , Stearyltrimethylammonium chloride , Benzenemethanol , 4-hydroxy-α-[1-methylamino)ethyl]-,(R*,S*)- , Quinolin-2(1H)-one , 3,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-3-dimethylaminomethyl- , 5-Hepten-2-amine , N,6-dimethyl- , 2-Pentanone , 4-amino-4-methyl- , Benzedrex , α-Pinene , 10-(dimethylaminomethyl)- , Ethanamine ,2-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-N-methyl- , Ephedrine , 1-(1,4-cyclohexadienyl)-2-methylaminopropane ,  Tapentadol , 3-Pyridinecarboxaldehyde , O-acetyloxime , (E)- , 1,2,3-Propatriol , 1-indol-4-yl(ether) , 2,2,3,4-tetramethyl-5-phenyloxazolidine , Phosphorothioic acid , S-ester with trimethylenediiminodipropanthi ,  Cyclopentanone ,2-(2-octenyl)- , Butyl 9-tetradecenoate , Androstane-11,17-dione,3-[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-,17-[O-(phenylmethyl) and 13-Oxabicyclo[9.3.1] pentadecane , 15-chloro.

7. A New Insight of Effect of Ampicillin-Gentamicin Through Chlorinative Stress Mechanism in Saliva of Newborn at Risk of Sepsis
Ari Yunanto, Pudji Andayani, Astarini Hidayah, Devi A Kusumawardani, Iskandar Thalib, Eko Suhartono
Abstract
Clinical diagnosis of sepsis in neonate is difficult, because many signs of sepsis are nonspecific. There are several salivary biomarkers of stress as objective indicators of stress reactions.This study was designed to investigate the effect of ampicillin-gentamicin treatment to chlorinative stress parameters insaliva of newborn at risk of sepsis. Four chlorinative stress parameters were used, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) levels, and chlorinative index (CI). This study was performed in May until September 2016. Saliva samples were taken from 26 newborns at risk of sepsis treated in Ulin General Hospital, Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. All newborns were given ampicillin-gentamicin three until ten days. The H2O2 levels, MPO activity, AOPPs levels, and CI were measured from the saliva taken from both pre and post treatment. Statistical analysis of the parameters were obtained from before and after the ampicillin-gentamicin treatment, using Mann-Whitney test. The used ofampicillin-gentamicin for treatment of newborns at risk of sepsis showed significant decrease in the H2O2 levels, MPO acitivity, AOPPs levels, and significant increases in the CI. From this results, it can be concluded that Ampicillin-gentamicin could reduce the chlorinative stress in newborn at risk of sepsis.

8. A Review on Sintering Technique in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Amol R Bodke, Smita S Aher, R B Saudagar
Abstract
In the pharmaceutical science, sintering has been described as the mechanism for the strengthening of the mechanical properties of consolidated pharmaceutical powders at elevated temperatures, for solid-bond formation during tablet compression, and for thermal curing of polymer-latex film -Coatings. The concept of sintering was applied in the investigation of the effect of heating on the mechanical properties of pharmaceutical powders. The formation of solid bonds within a powder bed during tablet compression was also studied in terms of sintering. The changes in the hardness and Disintegration time of tablets stored at elevated temperatures were described as a result of sintering. Furthermore, the sintering process has been used for the fabrication of sustained – release matrix tablets and for the stabilization of the drug permeability of film coatings derived from various pharmaceutical lattices.

9. Effect of Sesame Oil on Male Rats Treated with Acrylamide in some Physiological and Hormonal  Blood Criteria
Alaauldeen S M AL-Sallami
Abstract
Sesame oil, natural foods rich in active compounds that have been used since ancient times and popular tradition for the treatment of many diseases. Used in the current study, 64 male rats to determine the effect of sesame oil affordable doses of  0.5, 1, and 2 ml divided into 8 groups. The first group as positive control  was no treatment for the purpose of controlling with  second group was treated material acrylamide  as a negative control for the purpose of comparison with the third, fourth and fifth treatment groups textured acrylamide , sesame oil, while the sixth, seventh and eighth groups treated material only sesame oil. And showed the results of the current study significant effect on physiological blood criteria ( RBC, WBC, LYM, MONO, GRANO)  and hormonal (FSH, LH, Testosterone ), as well as the weight of the genitals (Epididymis and testis)  , the weight of total body and  cells in  spermatogenesis  processing , especially when the dose of 2 ml when compared with the control. The study concluded that the possibility of the use of sesame oil in improving fertility in humans, especially those who suffer infertility and when eating sesame oil without the emergence of any side effects.

10. Characterization of Antifungal Secondary Metabolites Produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Screening of its Chemical Compounds Using GC-MS
Abeer Fauzi Al-Rubaye, Mohanad Jawad Kadhim, Imad Hadi Hameed
Abstract
Bioactives were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) techniques, then the in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity of the methanolic extract was evaluated. Twenty two bioactive compounds were identified in the methanolic extract of Klebsiella pneumoniae. GC-MS analysis of Klebsiella pneumoniae revealed the existence of the 6,9,12-Octadecatrienoic acid , phenylmethyl ester , (Z,Z,Z)-, 5,7-Dodecadiyn-1,12-diol, 1,4 Decadiyne, 10,12-Octadecadiynoic acid, 1-Cyclopropyl-3,4-epoxyhex-5-en-1-yne, N,N-Dimethyl-3-methoxy-4-methylphenethylamine, Ethenetricarbonitrile , 3,4-xylidino, Pentyl glycolate, 3-(1,1′-Biphenyl-4-yl)butanenitrile, 4′-Amino-6-methoxyyaurone, Ethanone , 2,2′-(octahydro-2,3-quinoxalinediylidene)bis[1-phe, 1,1′-Bicyclohexyl , 4-methoxy-4′-propyl-, [1.4]Bipiperidinyl-4′-carboxamide , 1′-(chlorobenzenesulfony, 7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-amine ,Vinylsulfonamide, 1-Phenyl-2-(4-methylphenyl)diazene 1-oxide, N-Benzyl-N-ethyl-p-isopropylbenzamide, 1-phenyl-2-(4-methylphenyl)-diazene 1-oxide, 1-Benzylindole, Isophthalic acid , di(2-methoxyethyl) ester, 1-Tert , butyl -3,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)diaziridine, 4-Dehydroxy-N-(4,5-methylenedioxy-2-nitrobenzylidene)tyram. Datura stramonium (Alkaloids) was very highly active (6.481±0.24) mm. The results of anti-fungal activity produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae showed that the volatile compounds were highly effective to suppress the growth of Aspergillus flavus (6.287±0.30). Klebsiella pneumoniae produce many important secondary metabolites with high biological activities. Based on the significance of employing bioactive compounds in pharmacy to produce drugs for the treatment of many diseases, the purification of compounds produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae can be useful.

11. Hepatoprotective Effect of Carob Pods Extract (Ceratonia siliqua L.) against Cyclophosphamide Induced Alterations in Rats
Ibrahim Abulyazid, Sawsan A Abd Elhalim, Hayat M Sharada, Wael M. AboulthanaSohaila T A Abd Elhalim
Abstract
Drugs used for treatment of cancerous diseases by mean of chemotherapy are often limited due to their severe undesirable side effects in multiple organs. Cyclophosphamide (CYP) belongs to class of the cytotoxic bifunctional alkylating agents. In the current study, it was revealed that CYP caused significant (P˂0.05) elevation in levels of different biochemical measurements. Carob extract exhibited beneficial effect through lowering of all elevated parameters. Furthermore, CYP caused decline in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level in association with elevation of lipid peroxidation (LPO) level and significantly (P˂0.05) in liver tissue. Carob extract restored TAC and lowered LPO level. CYP caused several histopathological alterations in the hepatocytes and carob extract minimized severity of these alterations. The similarity index percent (SI %) in the native electrophoretic protein, lipoprotein and calcium moiety of protein patterns was represented by lowest values (87.50, 66.67 and 70.59, respectively) with the CYP-treated group. The SI % values increased in all carob treated groups. In all electrophoretic isoenzymes, the SI % value was represented by the lowest value (60.00, 66.67, 66.67 and 53.33 respectively with catalase (CAT), peroxidase (GPx), α- and β-esterase (EST) patterns) in CYP-treated group. While in all carob treated groups, the SI % value reached the highest value (100.00). Furthermore, CYP induced cleavage of the genomic DNA and the carob extract maintained the DNA integrity. The study concluded that carob showed ameliorative effect against alterations induced by CYP at biochemical, histopathological and molecular levels in liver tissue.

12. Moringa oleifera: A Review on Morphological, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Aspects
Sharma Garima, Payal Pratibha, Sharma Neelu, Sharma Mahesh C
Abstract
Moringa oleifera is one of the best known, most widely distributed and naturalized species of a monogeneric family Moringaceae. Various parts of this plant such as the leaves, roots, seeds, barks, fruits etc. have been found to be immense important because of their pharmaceutical and medicinal applications such as antipyretic, antiepileptic, diuretic, cholesterol lowering, cardiac and circulatory stimulating activities. Various compounds isolated from this plant are being employed for the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine. A thorough literature survey reveals that the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of roots and barks were found to be effective in preventing various diseases as well as infections. These pharmaceutical and medicinal applications have made their study considerably important in the field of natural product and have prompted the research towards the isolation of such compounds with enhanced pharmacological activity.

13. Urinary Tract Infections: Characterization and Herbal Antimicrobial Activity: A Review
Imad Hadi Hameed, Abeer Fauzi Al-Rubaye, Mohanad Jawad Kadhim
Abstract
Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases from the dawn of civilization. According to World Health Organization (WHO), about 80% of the world population rely chiefly on plant based traditional medicine specially for their primary health care needs and there has been a worldwide move towards the use of traditional medicines due to concerns over the more invasive, expensive and potentially toxic main stream practices. This review gives a bird’s eye view on the updated information on urinary tract infections (UTIs), different categories of urologic herbs, historical use and modern scientific investigations on some important urologic herbs, clinical studies, some isolated chemical compounds and their possible side effects.

14. Effect of Different Parameters on the Release of Diclofenac Modified Tablets
Heyam Saad Ali, Rasha Saad, Babiker M.A.Elhaj, Jiyauddin Khan, Mohammed Kaleemullah, Samer Al-Dhalli
Abstract
In the present study the influence of designing and development of sustained release (SR) matrix tablets of diclofenac sodium were investigated. The aim was to increase therapeutic efficacy, reduce frequency of administration, and improve patient compliance. Sustained release matrix tablets of diclofenac sodium, were developed by using different drug: gum ratios, using Xanthan gum as matrix former, microcrystalline cellulose as diluent and Polyethylene Glycol (PEG 6000) as release modifier. Formulated tablets were evaluated for friability, hardness, thickness and their relation to the amount of gum: drug ratio and drug release. The drug release was evaluated in different pH, rotation speed and stirrer. All the formulations showed compliance with pharmacopeial standards. Formulation consisting of drug: Gum ratio of 1:0.12 showed sustained release of drug for 12 hours with 89.67% release. The release pattern showed constant kinetics. Thus, (Xanthan Gum) can be used in as effective matrix former.

15. Evaluation of Bacterial Infections on Caudal Fin Regeneration in Zebrafish and Effect of Restorative Plants
Sakthivel Selvakumar, Gurusamy Annadurai
Abstract
In this present work to exploring how the recovery limit in the time of the caudal balance recovery of ordinary and bacterial disease (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Flexibacter columnaris and Aeromonas hydrophila) in zebra fish and relative examination of focusing on tainting microorganisms by the the plants (Azadirachta indica, Moringa oleifera and Cynodon dactylon) extracts and antimicrobials. Intraperitoneal infusion and water dissolving strategy were utilizing for bacterial disease in zebrafish followed by standard protocol. Four distinctive plant extracts utilizing for biocidal movement. In the intraperitoneal injection method, the fish was not live. Typical caudal fin recovery begins gradually at a time augments and accomplishes, it is a full recovery in twelfth days. A. hydrophila and P. aeruginosa those microorganisms were making contaminating to zebrafish and it doesn’t have noteworthy recovery prepare in water dissolve method. However, F. columnaris is not contaminated the zebrafish and it discovered ordinary recovery process were watched. The plant extracts of A. indica accepted more opportunity to solution the fish malady, even chloramphenicol cured (ten days) the illness in brief period and the caudal fin recovery handle recaptured. In comparing to chloroform extract of A. indica showed maximum activity in order to F.  columnaris (6±0.3 mm), A. hydrophila (5±0.25 mm), A. hydrophila and P. aeruginosa (4±0.2 mm). Presence of the bacteria in the infected cells might lead to the inhibition of regeneration in the amputated region and chloroform extract of Azadirachta indica could be utilized for the advancement of new sorts of antibacterial specialists and may hence be utilized as remedial in caudal fin recovery of zebra fish.