Volume8,Issue4

1. Isolation of Malassezia Furfur and Evaluation of Ivermectin and Calvatia Craniiformis as A Novel Antifungal Agents for Pityriasis Versicolor  with Special Refer to Risk Factors in Iraqi Patients
Ali Ibrahim Ali Al-Ezzy, Ghassan H Jameel, Tariq R Minnat
Abstract
Objectives: isolation of Malassezia furfur from pityriasis versicolor (PV) patients; in vitro evaluation of ivermectin and Calvatia craniiformis antifungal activity as novel agents for treatment; finally evaluation of age, gender, contact with animals and marital status as risk factors for M. furfur infections. Methods: Sixty PV patients were included. M furfur isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. ivermectin aqueous solutions (0.5%), (1%) and (2%); C craniiformis  alcoholic extracts ( 50mg, 100mg, 200mg, 400mg, 600mg, 800mg and 1 gm) were used  to determine their  novel antifungal activity  against M furfur  in vitro using  broth dilution susceptibility test. Results: The majority of patients (61.7%) in age group (27-32) years followed by (21-26) years.  Males : females  represent (83.33%: 16.67%) . Significant difference was reported among patients in  age, gender, marital status and anatomic location of body area infected with M furfur. Age has no significant correlation with other proposed risk factors of M.furfur infection. Gender significantly correlated with contact with dogs and birds  as well as marital status ( p value =0.000). Marital status significantly correlated with contact with animals(dogs and birds, p value =0.000);infected  area of the body ( p value =0.000).Contact with dogs and birds significantly correlated  with anatomic location of infected area of the body ( p value =0.000).  A total of (75%)  of patients respond to treatment with (2 %)ivermectin aqueous solution, the  meantime for clearance was 23.5 days. A total of (90 %) of patients respond to treatment with alcoholic extract of C. craniiformis (1000 mg), meantime for clearance was 24days.  Significant difference in time of  complete curing reported between groups (p<0.05). Significant difference was detected between  the following C. craniiformis concentrations: 100mg and 200 mg; 200 mg and 400 mg; 400 mg and 600 mg; 100mg and 1000 mg; 800 mg and 1000 mg; 400 mg and 1000 mg. Significant difference between 1% and 2% as well as 0.5% and 2% Ivermectin was determined. Conclusions: M. furfur considered an important etiology for PV. Alcoholic extract of C. craniiformis (1000 mg), and (2%) ivermectin aqueous solution, significantly inhibit the in vitro growth of M. furfur. The effect was proportionally associated with concentration. The meantime of clearance for clinical lesions, using these agents was shorter than fluconazole and hence can be used as a novel topical antifungal agent for treatment of PV associated M. furfur infections.  The main risk factor for PV associated M. furfur infection was direct contact with dogs and birds while infection indirectly affected by gender .The main affected sites were neck and shoulder together, neck and trunk respectively.

2. Formulation and Evaluation of Floating Mucoadhesive Tablet of Clopidogrel
Shinkar D M, Alai M S, Saudagar R B
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate Floating Mucoadhesive tablets of Clopidogrel for the treatment of antithrombotic and antiplatelet agent. Tablets were prepared by direct compression using directly compressible polymers such as HPMC K4M, and Carbopol 934 were evaluated for drug-excipient compatibility, density, buoyancy test, mucoadhesion force, swelling study, drug content and In-Vitro release profile. Sodium bicarbonate and citric acid were used producing effervescent base for buoyancy of tablets. Analysis of drug release from tablet indicates drug release by zero order, first order rate kinetics. No significant change was observed in physical appearance, drug content, floatability or in-vitro dissolution pattern after storage at 450C/750C RH for three months.

3. Design Development and Evaluation of Bilayer Tablet Using Eprosartan Mesylate for the Treatment of Hypertension
Avinash B Darekar, Sonali N Jadhav, Ravindra B Saudagar
Abstract
The aim of present study is to formulate Eprosartan Mesylate sustained release (SR) and immediate release (IR) bilayer tablet by different concentration of Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and HPMC K 100 M to control the release pattern. The sustained release layer of Eprosartan Mesylate was prepared by using different grades of HPMC like, HPMC K-100, HPMC along with other excipients by direct compression technique. The immediate release layer of Eprosartan Mesylate was prepared by Cross carmellose sodium and Sodium starch glycolate by direct compression technique. The powders were evaluated for their flow properties and the finished tablets were evaluated for their physical parameters. The both immediate release and sustained release layers of Eprosartan Mesylate were characterized by FT-IR and in vitro dissolution studies. The drug release study of Eprosartan Mesylate was evaluated using USP-II paddle type dissolution apparatus. The release rate of Eprosartan Mesylate in immediate release layer was studied for 1hr in 0.1 N HCL media and that of Eprosartan Mesylate in sustained release layer was studied for 12 hr in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer media. From the nine batches S9 batch showed good release behaviour 98.82% of drug is released over 12 hours. Eprosartan Mesylate  is a poorly water soluble (BCS class II) antihypertensive drug. Due to the poor water solubility of this drug, its bioavailability is dissolution rate-limited.

4. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Crude Root Ethanolic Extract of Crataeva magna Lour (DC) by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer
R Meera, S Venkataraman
Abstract
Accumulation of heavy metals (HMs) like cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury were determined in root bark of Crataeva magna Lour (DC) by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The objective of the study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals in root bark that are used in medicine by the local community. Analysis of the heavy metal in selected plant samples was performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Measurements were made using a hollow electron discharge lamp (EDL) for cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury at wavelengths of 228.80 nm, 283.31 nm, 193.70 nm and 253.7 nm respectively. The analysis revealed the negative result for cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury in root bark. The root bark was found negative for cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury. This study confirm that the risk of HMs contamination of root bark of Crataeva magna Lour (DC) to appears low but the presence of HMs in this root bark needs to be analyzed every time before processing to confirm the absence of HMs. The consumer must be cautious while consuming these plants for medicinal purpose.

5. The New Age Savior for Combating Cancer: Antibody Drug Conjugates
Mehak Chauhan, Nikita Sehgal, Kriti Soni, Kanchan Kohli
Abstract
Traditional techniques opted to treat cancer were found to be extremely harmful to the tissues when given at a slightly higher dose. ADCs (Antibody Drug Conjugates) have transformed the field of cancer chemotherapy. ADCs use monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to explicitly tie tumour-related target antigens and convey an exceptionally powerful cytotoxic agent. The synergistic mix of mAbs conjugated to little molecule chemotherapeutics, through a stable linker, has given rise to an adequate class of anti-cancer drugs with an effectively extensive and quickly developing clinical pipeline. Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) are an important division of therapeutics that allows the antigen-selective ability of mAbs to deliver highly potent cytotoxic drugs at the site of antigen-expressing tumour cells. The utilization of mAb coordinated delivery can present a high therapeutic index to exceptionally strong cytotoxic drugs, expanding both the efficacy and level of safety of the treatment. In other words, to achieve the goal of highly improved therapeutic efficacy and reduced toxicity, each component of an ADC i.e. the mAb, linker and the drug needs to be considered in context of targeted antigen. Furthermore, the mechanism of ADCs, characteristics of targets, methods of preparation, linker drugs being used in ADC design is discussed.