International Journal of

Current Pharmaceutical Review and Research

ISSN: 0976 822X

Peer Review Journal

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1. Nanomedicine and drug Delivery systems-Roles, Advantages and Disadvantages
Reyadh R Al-Rashidi, Wesam R Kadhum, Muqdad Alhijjaj, Radhi K Obaid
Abstract
Nanotechnology is a new and rapidly evolving subject in the pharmacological and therapeutic professions. Nanoparticles have many advantages as medication delivery systems, including increased efficacy and fewer adverse drug reactions. This study investigated the roles of nanomedicine and drug delivery systems in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of nanotechnology. The study used a qualitative research technique, with online survey questionnaires sent to medical professionals and experts in the field of nanomedicine. These surveys comprised open-ended questions that enabled respondents to record their responses in whatever way they deemed fit. The ten respondents were from a variety of medical and health institutes, as well as medical consulting firms. In terms of results, the research established that nanomedicine had been used in medical care for therapy and diagnostic purposes. They are being explored in clinical trials for several reasons. Nanoparticles are used to treat renal disease, Tuberculosis, skin problems, Alzheimer’s disease, and various types of cancer and to create COVID-19 vaccines. Further information about the study findings may be found in the results and discussion chapter.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7536909

2. Study of Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Hemopoietic Markers at Tertiary Care Center of Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
Rashmi, A K Verma, Akanksha Menaria, Nirali Salgiya
Abstract
Background: Smoking-induced hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative stress result in impairment of hematological parameters. Contradictory evidence is found as far as the effect of smoking on blood cells and indices is concerned. Objectives: The objective of this study is to see the effect of use of tobacco smoking on serum vitamin-B12, S.Iron, S.TIBC  and S. Ferritin level and compare it with non-smoker healthy adults. Methodology: Total 300 patients were include in this study, in which patients ranging within age 20-40 years, they were further  categorized according to use of tobacco smoking. Group A- This group consist of tobacco smoker patients between ages 20- 40 years. (n=150).Group B-This group consist of tobacco non-smoker patients between ages 20-40 years. (n=150). 10 ml blood was drawn through vein puncture. From all collected blood samples S. iron, S. TIBC, S. ferritine, S.vitamin B12 and Liver function tests were measured. All collected data were analysed statistically to calculate p value to see the difference of significance. Results: The Mean concentration of S. Iron (mg/dL) in smoker  group was  162.12 ±48.76 while that of  Non-smoker control group 143.09 ±47.86  and the difference among them found to be  highly significant. The Mean concentration of S. TIBC (mg/dL) in smoker  group was  314.08 ±82.53  while that of  Non-smoker control group 230.22 ±79.17   and the difference among them found to be  highly significant. The Mean concentration of S. Ferritin (micrograms/lit) in smoker  group was  178.38 ±50.02  while that of  Non-smoker control group 66.73 ±35.65   and the difference among them found to be  highly significant. The Mean concentration of  S. Vit. B12 (pg/mL) in smoker  group was  288.78 ±108.60  that is low as compared to non-smokers group. Non-smoker control group 459.89 ±165.77   and the difference among them found to be  highly significant Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that there were low serum vitamin B12  concentrations in smokers compared with non-smokers, which might contribute to the development of vascular and cardiovascular diseases.  It may be concluded that there appears a link between smoking and alterations in hematological parameters.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7536924

3. Study of Various Oxidants and Trace Elements in Cervical Cancer Patients at Tertiary Care Center of Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
Shilpa Sharma, A K Verma, Anita Yadav, Harpreet Kaur
Abstract
Background: Cervical  Cancer  is  one  of  the  most  common  gynaecological  malignancy  worldwide.  Approximately, 5,00,000 new cases  are diagnosed  every year with a higher rate of incidence among women  of  lower   socioeconomic  status  especially  in  developing  countries. Objectives: The objective of this study is to measure the oxidant status. To estimate and compare serum levels of oxidant MDA (malondialdehyde) and  trace elements like Mg, Zn and their derangement in premenopausal and postmenopausal cervical cancer patients. Methodology: These case control studies consist of 150 patients of cervical cancer along with 150 healthy subjects of précised matched age within the institution. blood samples was collected from all participants and samples were analysed for oxidant MDA (malondialdehyde)and trace elements like  Mg and Zn. Results obtained were analyzed statistically to see the significance of differences. Results: The Mean concentration of S.MDA (nmol/L) in case group was 5.88 ±2.52 while that of cervical cancer, MDA, Mg, and Zn control group 2.92 ±0.70 and the difference among them found to be highly significant. Zinc and Magnesium levels were found to be low in cervical cancer patients as compared to control group. The Mean concentration of S. magnesium (mg/dL) was in case group was 1.30±0.44 and 1.91 ±0.29 control group and the difference among them found to be highly significant. Similar to that S. Zinc (mcg/dL) concentration in case group was 35.87 ±11.31 and in control group 118.26 ±29.41. And the difference among them found to be highly significant. Conclusion: We conclude that an imbalance between oxidant-antioxidant status of patients in case Group when compared to healthy controls. This imbalance plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of cervical cancer though the involvement of these parameters is altered in oxidative stress. The study found significantly lower concentrations of zinc and Magnesium in cervical cancer patients. Zinc and Magnesium supplements may therefore result in reduced cervical cancer occurrence among high risk women.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7536957

4. Development and Optimization of Cubosomal Econazole Nitrate
Surabhi Satheesan, Krishnananda Kamath K, Shabaraya A.R.
Abstract
Cubosomes are nanoparticle, more accurately nano structure particles of a liquid crystalline phase with cubic crystallographic symmetry formed by the self-assembly of amphiphilic or surfactants like molecule. This study is to investigate the potential of cubosomes as lipid nanocarrier to improve the controlled release of Econazole Nitrate used for treatment of dermatophytes. Econazole Nitrate cubosomes were prepared by Top-down approach employing GMO as lipid phase vehicle, Poloxamer 407 as stabilizer and distilled water as aqueous phase. The resultant cubosomes dispersion were characterized by encapsulation efficiency, in-vitro drug release, particle size, zeta potential and FTIR. Best formulation (F4) showed a maximum drug release of 93.96 % in 8 hours, particle size of 230.1 nm and zeta potential of -19.1 mV. The best formulation was chosen on the basis of Optimization by Design of Expert software which will be incorporated into the carbopol 934 gel for the proper and feasible application of the formulation on skin.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7536971

5. The Role and Correlation of Music Intervention to Alleviate Pain and Anxiety: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Ravi Patidar, Neelam Balekar
Abstract
Many studies suggest that Music Therapy (MT) can help calm nervous system and lower cortisol levels, both of which can help reduce stress and anxiety. The objective of the study was to find out the potential correlation between music, anxiety and pain by locating all research and merging their findings. A literature search on PubMed, Web of Science, Global health, Medline & Cochrane review of journals databases was performed on the recent 10 years of data. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) studies included patients with anxiety and pain and accumulated data on music intervention therapies with the help of Revman software. The quality of evidence was assessed using the modified Jadad scale and was found to be 5.3 in a scale of 9. It was evaluated that patient’s anxiety levels decreased and their blood pressure, oxygen saturation level, and heart rate values improved when on music therapy. It raised the stress threshold and reduced discomfort. For the MT group, the analysis produced a moderate effect of anxiety with a statistically significant result (RD= -0.01, 95%CI, -0.04-0.03, p=0.832, I2=0%). The Hamilton Anxiety Rating scale measured anxiety, Visual Analogue Scale (0–10) measured pain which was found to be 1.The outcome of the study was that patient with anxiety and pain have benefited from MT though effect of MT on anxiety was greater as compared to pain.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7537013

6. A Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis on Interrelating Comorbid Conditions and Breathing Practices
Khan Afrin, Balekar Neelam
Abstract
Background & Objective: Previous studies have suggested that there is a correlation between cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. The current review was carried out to comprehensively examine the probable relationship between cardiovascular disorder, respiratory disorder, and breathing habits by locating all relevant research & combining their findings. Methods: A literature search on PubMed, Science Direct databases was performed on past 10 years data. For randomized controlled trials (RCT) studies included cardiovascular & respiratory disorder and accumulated data on breathing practices. The modified Jadad scale was used to evaluate the quality of the evidence. The random effect model was used to compute the mean difference (MD), standardised mean difference (SMD), and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the continuous outcome. Results: A total of 20 RCT studies with 1,333 participants with age group of 18-85 years were included in these studies. On the basis of heterogeneity breathing practices showed a positive effect on respiratory disorder in COPD (SMD = -0.29,95%CI: -0.74, -0.15) than low positive effect on cardiovascular disorder (SMD = -0.24,95%CI: -0.48, -0.55). The assessed quality of the studies based on the modified Jadad scale was high (5.2). Conclusion: In current systematic review & meta -analysis found to discover the correlation between respiratory diseases (COPD & asthma) and cardiovascular diseases (hypertension) and breathing practices.  The outcome of the systematic review and meta-analysis conformed that breathing exercises are more effective for the adult age group over 26 years for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7537030

7. Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effect of Yoga and Meditation on Cognitive Function: A Systematic Review & Meta-analysis
Jain Shivangani, Balekar Neelam
Abstract
Background & Objective: Yoga is a potentially beneficial form of physical exercise, but limited research has been done into its effects on the brain and its function. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of yoga and meditation on cognitive function using randomized controlled trials (RCT) studies. Methods: A literature search was performed using Pub Med and Google Scholar databases over the past 10 years for RCT studies that contained articles on the effects of yoga and meditation on cognitive function. The risk of bias was assessed using modified jadad scale. For each outcome mean difference (MD) & standard mean difference (SMD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was assessed. Adjusted point estimates from each study was extracted and combined using the random effect model to determine the heterogeneity of studies. Results: Twelve RCT studies with 1,089 participants were included. The mean jadad score was 5.3 with a 0.6 standard deviation. The studies reported significant positive effect of yoga on cognitive function (MD = 0.38, 95 per cent CI: 1.21 to 0.45, P=0.37) between the experimental and control groups. Meditation exhibited a statistically significant effect compared to standard care control in cognitive function (SMD =2.21, 95% CI [3.99, 0.43], p <.001), with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 97%, p = 0.01). Conclusion: This systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs suggested that yoga & meditation showed significant improvement in many cognitive domains of attention and executive functioning of verbal working memory, auditory attention & short-term retentive capacity. The research findings support the notion that yoga practices were more effective on cognitive function than mindfulness meditation.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7537049

8. The Anticonvulsant Activity of Mucoadhesive Buccal Films of Sodium Valproate in Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizure Rat Model
Iwan Setiawan, Anas Subarnas, Yoga Windhu Wardhana
Abstract
Buccal preparations are currently gaining interest in the study of drug delivery systems. These preparations can adhere to mucosal surfaces, hydrate, and deliver the drug across the buccal membrane. Based on the Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS), the drug compound Sodium valproate Sodium valproate belongs to class 1 which has excellent solubility and permeability. Therefore, by developing into a mucoadhesive buccal dosage form, a faster onset of action will be obtained, increased bioavailability and ease of use. In partial epilepsy, bipolar disorder (psychosis), and migraine therapy, sodium valproate is the first-line anticonvulsant. Therefore, this study aims to develop sodium valproate into a mucoadhesive buccal film dosage form using the solvent casting method. The preparations were then tested for antiepileptic activity, and the pharmacokinetic profile analysis was conducted in test animals induced with the pentylenetetrazole compound using a Post Randomized Controlled Group Design. The results showed an anti-epileptic activity with a longer duration of onset, shorter duration of seizures, and lower seizure frequency when compared to the experimental animal group administered sodium valproate tablets. The pharmacokinetic profile of sodium valproate included absorption parameters of Ka, Tmax, Cmax, Vd, T1/2 el, and Kel of 0.0033 Hr-1, 3.93 Hr-1, 4.55 mg/L, 3.03 L, 21.8 minutes, and 0.0053/minute, respectively. Based on the results, sodium valproate mucoadhesive buccal film preparation can be developed into an anti-epileptic preparation with a delayed release profile, and a relatively fast onset, making it a breakthrough for antiepileptic therapy.

DPI: 10.5281/zenodo.7537057

9. Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis of Ethanolic Extracts of Hibiscus laevis Flowers and Euryale ferox Seeds
Mohd. Shahid Khan, Pankaj Arora, Naresh Kalra, Namita Arora, Arushi Purva, Neha Sharma
Abstract
The purpose of the research was to determine whether or not H. laevis and E. ferox had any potential in the field of phytochemistry. Ethanol was the solvent of choice for the extraction process of both the flowers of H. laevis and the seeds of E. ferox. There is evidence of the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, phytosterols, gum, and mucilage in the ethanolic extract of H. laevis. On the other hand, there was a lack of steroidal compounds, protein and amino acids, tannins, saponins, oil, and lipids. The ethanolic extract of E. ferox, on the other hand, reveals the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, carbohydrates, and phytosterols. On the other hand, there was a notable lack of steroids, proteins and amino acids, gum and mucilages, saponins, and oil and fats. Because of the presence of a variety of secondary metabolites, both of the plant extracts have the potential to be further investigated for appropriate pharmacological activity.

DPI: 10.5281/zenodo.

10. Formulation And Evaluation of Antidandruff Herbal Shampoo Using Petroleum Ether Extract of Lantana camara Linn. Leaves.
Laxmi Kant, Namita Arora
Abstract
The objective of the present research was to formulate and evaluate anti-dandruff herbal shampoo. The herbal anti-dandruff shampoo was prepared using lanatan camara leaf extract, triethanolamine lauryl sulphate, cocodiethanolamide, EGDS, jasmine oil, sodium chloride, methyl papaben, gelatin and lemon juice. Twelve formulations were prepared. Various evaluation parameters like physical appearance, determination of pH, determination of percentage of solid content, measurement of surface tension, determination of wetting time, determination of foam ability and foam stability determination of dirt dispersion, stability study and antifungal activity were performed were performed. Results also showed that liquid anti-dandruff herbal shampoo formulations LSF3 and LSF4 possess the characteristics of an ideal shampoo and are effective against Malassezia furfur MTCC 1374 and Candida albicans MTCC 227, the fungi responsible for dandruff in humans. It was found that LSF4 was most stable and effective amongst all formulations.

DPI: 10.5281/zenodo.

11. Quality of Life in Patients with Autoimmune Bullous Disease (AIBD).
S.B. Nishitha, Anuradha S, Mary Augustine
Abstract
Background:  Background:  AIBD is a chronic dermatological condition of autoimmune origin, affecting skin and mucous membrane. Systemic corticosteroids are mainstay of treatment. Use of newer biologic Rituximab has been introduced in the last decade.  Comprehensive studies reporting quality of life, factors affecting it are few in India. Methods and Materials: Prospective observational study in paitents with AIBD, followed up at 1 and 3 months. Data on demographics, disease characteristics, treatment, and treatment costs were collected. QOL was assessed and data were summarized using descriptive statistics and compared using chi-squared and t-tests. Results: Of the 47 patients recruited, 66% were females, mean age (SD) of participants being 46.6 (±11.1) years. Median (IQR) duration of AIBD was 0.83 (0.46-1.50) years.  The baseline DLQI was 10 with 44.7% patients having a poor QoL (DLQI ≥11). The mean change in DLQI over 3 months was 8.67 (±2.83), which was statistically significant. Significant predictors of poor QoL was adjuvant treatment [OR 55.00, 95% C.I. (4.30-703.43) p=0.002]. Conclusion: Patients had moderate severity of disease and poor QoL at baseline. They received rational treatment and there was an improvement in the DLQI score. There was a high economic burden due to hospital and drug costs. We recommend that health insurance coverage should be increased to help these patients.

DPI: 10.5281/zenodo.

12. Patterns of Drug Use and Adverse Drug Reactions in Patients with Autoimmune Bullous Disease (AIBD).
S.B. Nishitha, Anuradha S, Mary Augustine
Abstract
Background:  AIBD is an autoimmune dermatological disorder affecting predominantly the skin and mucous membrane. Though newer biologic Rituximab has been introduced in the last decade, systemic corticosteroids form the mainstay of the treatment. Comprehensive studies reporting drug use pattern, adverse effcects and costs involved with treatment have been few in India. Objectives: To evaluate the pharmacotherapy its adverse effects of AIBD, and costs incurred for treatment. Methods and Materials: Prospective observational study that enrolled adults with AIBD, who were followed up at 1 and 3 months. Data on demographics, disease characteristics, treatment, and treatment costs were collected. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics and compared using chi-squared and t-tests.  Results: Of the 47 patients recruited, 66% were females, mean age (SD) of participants being 46.6 (±11.1) years. Median (IQR) duration of AIBD was 0.83 (0.46-1.50) years. Mean no. of drugs was 9.2 ± 2.80. Thirty three (70.2%) patients received topical and 47 (100%) received systemic corticosteroid therapy and 18 (38.2%) received rituximab therapy. Most commonly prescribed topical drugs were supplements (calcium) 100%, oral prednisolone 100%, anti-inflammatory agents (79%). The median treatment cost including admission was INR 26702.1 (SD 21971.2). Conclusion: Patients had moderate severity of disease and poor QoL at baseline compared to other studies. They received rational treatment and there was an improvement in the DLQI score. There was a high economic burden due to hospital and drug costs. We recommend that health insurance coverage should be increased to help these patients.

DPI: 10.5281/zenodo.

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