Volume6,Issue1

1. Awareness about Glutathione: A miracle antioxidant
Safila Naveed, Halima Sadia
Abstract
Glutathione is a natural antioxidant that is produced in human, animals as well as plants. It detoxifies the body from harmful chemicals and metabolites. It functions by reducing oxygen stress in the body and also maintains exogenous antioxidants in their active state. It prevents the body from a number of diseases. Deficiency of glutathione makes the body more prone to anemia, infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes etc. Treatment of deficiency usually involves giving supplemental glutathione orally, parenterally or topically depending on the need of patient. This survey aimed to find out the awareness about glutathione, its functions, consequences and treatment of its deficiency in pharmacy undergraduates. It was observed that out of 100 students only 44% knew about glutathione, 33 % about its functions, 25 % about the consequences of its deficiency and 12 % about its treatment approach. Thus it is concluded that awareness about glutathione is very less among the pharmacy undergraduates.

2. A Review on Grafting Modification of Polysaccharides by Microwave Irradiation- Distinctive Practice for Application in Drug Delivery
Rohit Rajendra Bhosale, Riyaz Ali M. Osmani, Afrasim Moin.
Abstract
Most of the natural polysaccharides have been used as food and pharmaceutical excipients due to their biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost and easy availability. Diverse approaches such as etherification, crosslinking and graft co-polymerization can be used for the chemical modification of natural polymers. Grafting process is a suitable method to add new properties to a natural polymer with minimum loss of the initial properties of the substrate. Water is used as a solvent in most of the polysaccharide grafting reactions, as many polysaccharides are soluble in water. This review highlights modern applications of microwave heating in the grafting modifications of polysaccharides and discusses the fundamental mechanisms of grafting.

3. Assay of Moxifloxacin Brands
Safila Naveed, Sheeba Uroog, Nimra Waheed
Abstract
Moxifloxacin is a fourth generation fluroquinolones synthetic antibacterial agent. Moxifloxacin active against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Many oral and parentral preparation of moxifloxacin are used to treat the many respiratory and skin infections. In this study, a quick and simple assay method has been developed by using the UV spectrophotometer. The assay of different brands of moxifloxacin is based on measuring the absorbance at the 294 nm wave length .Moxiget , avolox and izilone three different brands of moxifloxacin are taken from the market . 200ppm, 100ppm, 50ppm and 25ppm solutions were prepared. The percent assay is calculated and the correlation coefficient for different brands was found to be 0.998 for A, 0.997 for B, 0.999 for C which are within the limit. Thus we can conclude that the method can be applied for the routine QC quantitative analysis of moxifloxacin tablet formulation.

4. Phytonutrient Analysis in Terminalia catappa Fruit Flesh, Nut, Shell
Krishnaveni M, Dhanalakshmi R
Abstract
Terminalia catappa fruit is rich in phytochemicals and nutrients which contribute to the therapeutic potential. Fruit as a whole is very tasty but the curiosity in analyzing the flesh and seed separately made an attempt to do this work. The present study was carried out for the presence of phytochemicals, phytonuutrients, behavior with different chemicals, fluorescence as well as percent yield. Phytochemicals such as carbohydrate, alkaloids, glycosides, saponin, flavonoid, tannin and phenolic compounds, Protein and amino acids whereas, yellow and green fluorescence was observed with nut, flesh. The percent yield observed was 12.912, 09.086,   08.122. The carbohydrate content calculated was high with flesh 94.66±9.23mg/g and protein was higher in 13.95±0.30mg/g and nut contains moderate amount of amino acids. From the result it is concluded that Terminalia catappa fruit flesh, nut might be a potential source for the generation of herbal drug.

5. Effect of Dietary Inclusion of nettle (Urtica Dioica L.) on Histological Parameters of Caecal Tonsils in Broilers
Somayeh Hamedi, Tahoora Shomali, Mostafa Farzaneh, Seyed Mehdi Mohseni
Abstract
Regarding the remarkable role of caecal tonsils as a basic lymphoid organ in poultry, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of long term administration of nettle (Urtica Dioica) on histological features of this organ in broiler chickens. To this end, Fifty, one-day old chickens were randomly divided into five equal groups and fed with diets contained 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2% of nettle (experimental groups) or basal diet (Control Group) for 45 days. On day 46 birds were slaughtered and caecal tonsils were dissected immediately. Six μm-thick transverse sections were made and stained with H&E for measuring villus height and villus basal width at the crypt-villus junction, as well as nodular unit width and height, follicular width and muscular layer width by using a linear graticule. Number of follicles per nodular unit was also determined under light microscope. Villi were more flattened in 1% nettle-treated group as compared to control.  Although villi were shorter in other nettle-treated groups, their width was not changed appreciably (p>0.05). All groups showed decreased nodular unit width accompanied by increased height which was most prominent in the group fed with 1% nettle. Follicles were wider in all treated groups in comparison with control. Number of follicles per nodular unit showed a remarkable increase in all treated groups especially in 1% nettle-treated group. Muscular layer width decreased in treated groups as compared with control and the 1% nettle treated group had the lowest muscular layer width.  In conclusion, dietary inclusion of Urtica Dioica during the rearing period of broilers especially at the dose of 1% can enhance histological features of immune structures in caecal tonsils.

6. A Review on Phytochemical Constituents of M.Koenigii Roots: Rutaceae
Sivaperumal Gopalan, Kannan Kulanthai, Gnanavel Sathasivam
Abstract
In several ancient systems the developing countries used medicinal plants and their bioactive compounds for traditional health care. Herbs have always been the principal form of medicine in the world. Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of many complex chemical substances of different composition that are found as secondary plant metabolites. The nature has given the cure of every disease in one way or another. Therefore, the researchers today are emphasizing on evaluation and characterization of various plants constituents against a number of diseases based on their traditional claims of the plants given in Ayurveda. The M.Koenigii roots are medicinally important herb mainly from Asian origin. The roots of the plant are use as tonic stomach and the juice of the roots is taken to relieve pain associated with kidney. Aim of the review: The aim of this review is to afford an up to date and comprehensive overview of the chemical constituents, traditional uses, pharmacological activities and safety aspects of M.Koenigii roots. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the research related to chemistry and pharmacological studies of M. Koenigii roots. Materials and Methods: The efficient review of the literature was carried out and the data under various sections were identified by using a computerized bibliographic search. All abstracts and full-text articles were examined. The most relevant articles were selected for screening and inclusion in this review. Key findings: Variety of M.Koenigii roots extraction methods has been documented. Over the last decade, there has been a dramatic increase of interest in M. Koenigii roots as a medicinal and nutritional product due to its newly identified potential health effects.Conclusion: The Ethnopharmacological relevance of M. Koenigii roots are fully justified by the most recent findings indicating that the roots are medicinally helpful for treating a extensive range of human disorders. Further investigations are going to recognize the mode of action of the active constituents and to explore M. Koenigii roots that prevent from diseases.

7. Advertisement on Medicines / Treatment in Newspapers Violating Indian Laws ?
Akram Ahmad, Isha Patel, S. Parimalakrishnan, Guru Prasad Mohanta, Anantha Naik Nagappa
Abstract
Background:In recent times, the occurrence of false and misleading advertisements with exaggerated claims on efficacy has multiplied by several times. The two Indian legislations ‘Schedule J of Drugs and Cosmetics Rules’ and ‘Drugs and Magic Remedies Act’ govern the advertisement related to drugs and treatment. Objective: The present study attempted to analyze the advertisements on medicines and treatments appearing in some Indian newspapers for their rationality, truthfulness and violation of Indian Legislations. Methodology: In this cross-sectional study, the advertisements appearing from September 2012 to November 2012 in 10 newspapers comprising English and Hindi dailies, and covering Southern and Northern India, were collected and analyzed based on the provision of the two legislations. Results: The analysis of 82 advertisements showed that they were about sexual pleasure medications, menstrual problems, arthritis, hair problems, slimming, weight loss, infertility in males, height gain, enlargement of breasts and for leucoderma. 77 of the 82 advertisements violated the Drugs and Magic Remedies Act and provisions of Schedule J of Drugs and Cosmetics Act. Conclusion: The treatments or drugs advertised are false claims without any evidence. These diseases are listed in Schedule J of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act for which no one should claim to cure or advertise a cure. The misleading advertisements continue to appear in press, sometimes with celebrities endorsing these products and it is necessary that the Government should take action against these advertisements to protect the interest of the general public; failing upon which might lead to innocent public falling into this trap.

8. A Systematic Review of Mathematical Models of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms
Ilango K B, Kavimani S
Abstract
Description of the kinetics of drug release from pharmaceutical dosage form is a domain of steadily increasing academic and industrial importance. In vitro dissolution has been recognized as an important element in drug development. Several theories / kinetics models describe drug dissolution from dosage forms.  The aim of this paper is to review most of the popular mathematical approaches to drug release from pharmaceutical dosage forms.

9. A Review on Pharmacological uses of Essential Oil
Shikha Sahay
Abstract
The Egyptians are thought to use the aromatic herbs for cosmetic and other medicinal purposes. Several pots and other vessels are found which reflect that Egyptians have specialized the extraction procedures. Ayurveda which was written thousands of years ago, contains mentioning of essential oils in formulations.  The ayurvedic system of medicine is based on extracts of plants by differnet procedures in different amounts. During the dark ages, monks kept herbal sytem of medicine alive and practiced to cure population. The anti bacterial and anti pesticide properties were discovered during this time

10. Chemotherapeutic agents: Taxol and Vincristine isolated from Endophytic fungi
Manaf almatar, Essam A. Makky
Abstract
Endophytic fungi are abundant and have been found asymptomatically in most plants species. Endophytic fungi are considered as hidden members of the microbial world and represent an under-utilized resource of natural bioactive compounds for agricultural, industrial and medicinal uses. As reported previously, several valuable natural products with anticancer, antimicrobial, and insecticidal properties have been successfully extracted from the endophytic fungi. Chemotherapy yields the first promise of destroying cancer cells that has distributed into the body. This is due to the fact that chemotherapeutic agents overlap with the process of dividing cancer cells, which in turn leads to establishing new cells. Vincristine (vinca alkaloids) and podophyllotoxin prohibit the microtubules polymerization at high drug concentrations whereas Taxol™ and Taxotere stimulate the microtubules polymerization and stabilize the microtubules as well at high concentrations. In This review, we critically attempt to summarize the mechanisms of the cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, namely, Taxol and Vincristine (vinca alkaloids) on the need for more the research in the field of cancer chemotherapy.

11. Tele-Pharmacy and e-Pharmacy equivocal in India? Technological and legal issues of Tele-Pharmacy in India
Kingston Rajiah, Rajesh Venkataraman
Abstract
It was fascinating to communicate that, amid aristocrats, the word Pharmacy was frequently animated up with alternative word Tele-pharmacy. This vagueness drastically imitated an absence of lucidity on e-Pharmacy and Tele-pharmacy. To elucidate the core after these two words we collected viscount studied works on e-Pharmacy and Tele-pharmacy and to outline the technological and legal issues of Tele-Pharmacy in India. A literature review was conducted on basis of BIOMED CENTRAL and COCHRANE @ OVID databases. The keywords “Tele-Pharmacy”, “e-Pharmacy” and “India” were used. The topics were chosen to limit the citations with summaries, for the year between 2010 and 2014. In India, a pharmacist should be enumerated with state pharmacy council beforehand and then one can start working and inevitably one befits enumerated with pharmacy council of India when one is enumerated with all state pharmacy council, thus one can practice all over India. To advance the circumstances is that a regulation must be endorsed where succeeding reflections must be retained. There must have been a certificate scheme according to the area of practice.
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