1. IDENTIFICATION OF CELLULOLYTIC BACTERIA FROM THESOIL AND SCREENING OF ITS ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY
Sangeetha. D,Tharani. J, Ishwarya. R, Geetha.M and Sivasankari. C
Cellulase synthesizing bacteria were identified from the five different sources of the soil viz.
, garden soil, forest soil, municipal waste soil, kitchen waste soil, mangrove soil. Soil samples wereaseptically collected from different areas of Chidambaram. Efficacy of cellolase production were screened with all the ten isolates of cellulolytic bacteria using CMC agar (Carboxymethylcellulose agar) plates. Among the ten isolates, CPG-3 and CPMW-7 isolates showed high cellulolytic activity. These efficient two strains were selected for further studies. This two strainswere further identified based on morphological and biochemical test. The promising isolates were confirmed by 16s rRNA sequence. The isolate CPG-3 was confirmed as Bacillus cereus
and the isolate CPMW-7 was confirmed as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
. The cellulase assay was performed for the two efficient isolates. The maximum enzyme activity (4.2 U/ml) was observed in Bacillus cereus
2. IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON ENDOSCOPIC DEMOGRAPHY: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY
Yellapu Radha Krishna, Pentakota Kiranmayi, Mullapudi Harini
Pandemics are never easy to deal with, especially this new covid pandemic which has exposed the vulnerability and multiple lacunae in our existing health care. In this midst of chaos and uncertainty delivering endoscopic services had become a nightmare, as endoscopy is a procedure done in the aero digestive tract and also an aerosol generating procedure. This led to a lot of enigma and skepticism in selection of patients and precautions to be taken while performing procedures. Objective:
To Know the Feasibility and Utility of endoscopy as diagnostic and therapeutic services in Covid pandemic in the midst of chaos and uncertainties. Materials and Methods:
It is a retrospective study conducted from May 2020 to December 2020 in a Tertiary care Gastro hospital. Patients were screened clinically by Questionnaire highlighting the travel history, contact history, and residing history (hot spots for covid). X-Ray, HRCT and RT-PCR was done to exclude high risk cases. Clinical screening for symptoms, Vitals, Spo2 was done on all the patients. The procedures were performed using standard endoscopy equipment with appropriate COVID 19 protocols. Results:
One thousand two hundred and eighty (1280) patients aged between 20 years to > 70 years were referred and undertake upper and lower GI endoscopy in a Tertiary Care gastro hospital. Majority of the cases who underwent endoscopy were in the age group 31-40 years 317 (24.8%). They comprised of 59.9% males and 40.1% females. Common endoscopic diagnoses were Gastric erosions 31.4% followed by Normal Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE) / Lax Gastroesophageal (GE) Junction 17.4%. The most common symptom was dyspepsia seen in 725 (56.6%) of the patients, followed by dysphagia in 92 (7.2%), abdominal discomfort 64 (5%). Conclusions:
This study highlights, with proper history and clinical screening and appropriate precautions it was possible to provide endoscopy service to the needy without a strict protocol and expensive pre-endoscopy work up like HRCT and RT-PCR for all patients, without compromising patient or staff safety. Patients with alarm symptoms like Dysphagia and GI Bleed benefited the most, many patients with functional GI Disorders also were reassured with negative endoscopy and counseling. As during these times, people were in panic mode with all negative things happening around; many of these functional patients with overlap anxiety disorders were scared to death. A positive diagnosis is very important while managing most of these GI disorders.
3. INSIGHTS ON IDENTIFICATION OF BIOSIMILAR DRUGS USING VARIOUS ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
Swetha Sri, G. Srija, K. Bhavya Sri, M. Sumakanth
A biosimilar drug is a biological product that is approved based on demonstrating very similar to an approved biological product, known as reference biologic, for which there are no clinically meaningful differences in terms of safety, potency and purity. Biosimilar drugs have the potential to enhance treatment accessibility. They have the same strength and dosage as that of the reference product. The analytical biosimilar studies are conducted to demonstrate a highly similar profile concerning variations in biosimilar product’s critical quality attributes (CQAs). To achieve a successful approval of a biosimilar drug, establishing analytical and clinical biosimilarity is required. Approximately 90-95 drugs have gained approval so far in our country where studies are prevalent to increase the number and be handy for available to all classes of population. Byooviz(ranibizumab) having lucentis as its reference product was approved in the year sep 2021, whereas semglee(Insulin glargine)got its entry into the market in July 2021.The “Purple book” contains information including online database about FDA-licensed biological products which are regulated by CDER and CBER.Various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques are used for biosimilar assessment which includes mass spectroscopy, reversed-phase chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, hydrophobic chromatography, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, x-ray crystallography, multidimensional NMR spectroscopy, FTIR, fluorescence spectroscopy and also hyphenated techniques such as 2D-LC/MS, HILIC/MS.
4. ESTIMATION OF FERRITIN IN DIFFERENTIAL URBAN–RURAL FEMALE ASSOCIATION- A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
Maheswari Reddy, Saba Shafeen, Chinmaya Keshari Sahoo
Iron stores in the body exist primarily in the form of ferritin. Iron deficiency Anaemia is the state where iron level is below normal, low transferrin saturation and ferritin as well as high iron binding capacity. The aim of this study is to find out pervasiveness of iron deficiency anaemia in teenage (10-16 years) female students living in Rural and Urban areas Moinabad village, Ranga Reddy District, India. A Total 150 teenage female students were randomly chosen from different Government Schools. The evaluation of Body Mass Index (BMI), haemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin (SF) levels by using BMI standard formula Hemo-Cue Hb 201+ analyzer and ELISA method respectively. The mean of BMI, Hb and SF levels were observed at 17.21± 0.71, 10.93±0.91 and 36.86 ± 23.11 respectively from all female students. Iron Deficiency Anaemia was observed in 67.3% of students. Nutritious deficiency is the common cause of iron deficiency anaemia in female students.
5. ROLE OF GREEN TEA WITH APPLICATIONS, BENEFICIAL EFFECTS, ITS POTENTIAL HEALTH IMPLICATIONS AND ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS IN COSMETICS
Apeksha P. Motghare, Parimal P. Katolkar
Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide, and is available in various forms. As compared to other forms of tea, Green tea is richer in antioxidants. The health benefits of green tea for a wide variety of ailments, including different types of cancer, heart disease, and liver disease, were reported. Currently, tea extracts, due to their rich composition and various biological actions, play an important role among the dietary supplements and cosmetics. Green tea (GT) extracts contain polyphenols, known to be effective free radical scavengers, and other ingredients that could also provide benefits to the skin.
6. BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF THE INDOLE NUCLEUS IN RECENT YEARS: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW
Prabhakar W. Chavan, Prashant C. Hanamshetty, Nagabhushana M M, Thippeswamy A
Indole nucleus showed clinical and biological applications. Indole scaffold has been found in many of the important synthetic drug molecules which gave a valuable idea for treatment and binds with high affinity to the multiple receptors helpful in developing new useful derivatives. Indole derivative possess various types of biological activities i.e., antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-HIV, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-tubercular activities, etc. This review created interest among researchers to synthesize a variety of indole derivatives. Literature data revealed that the indole derivatives have exhibited diverse biological activities and also have immeasurable potential to be explored for newer therapeutic possibilities.
7. STANDARDIZATION OF DIFFERENT PLANT PARTS OF ADHATODA VASICA NEES. FOR VALIDATION OF IT’S QUALITY EVALUATION WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON AYURVEDA
Deepthy Mohan, Indu Chandrabose, Ashi Augustine, V. Remya, N.S. Nidhi, G.R. Asish, Sheela Karalam
Ayurveda system nearly using 90 percent of the Crude drugs is obtained from the plant sources. The drugs of plant origin especially of herbaceous nature are frequently used as whole plant; otherwise their parts such as root, stem, leaf, flower, seed, fruit, rhizomes, bark of a stem or root, wood, and their exudates or gums etc. Adhatoda vasica Nees. is an important drug used mainly in the Ayurvedic industry in their formulations. The present study deals with the application of analytical methods for to find out the variations with in different parts of a single plant by adopting pharmacognostical phytochemical and analytical parameters in Adhatoda vasica plant .Identified fresh materials of Adhatoda vasica categorized in to 5 type of samples according to different ratio of stem and root portions of plant material were documented.
8. COMPARATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADITIONALLY USED CITRUS SPECIES: CITRUS LIMON, CITRUS AURANTIUM, CITRUS MEDICA
Ashok Kumar Sharma, Mukesh Sharma, Shankar Lal Soni, Charanjeet Singh, Dilip Agarwal, Sanwar Mal Yadav
Plants are very rich and important source of various therapeutic compounds which are tremendiously using in pharmaceutical industry. Several studies confirmed that the presence of phytochemicals contribute medicinal as well as physiological properties to the plants. Citrus fruits, which belong to Rutaceae Family, accumulate a great variety of phytochemicals including low molecular phenolics, acetophenones, terpenoids, flavanoids, stilbenes and tannins. Citrus Limon, Citrus Aurantium, Citrus Medica possess antimicrobial, antibacterial and antioxidant properties or agents which boost up the individuals immune system. The traditional medicine practice is recommended strongly for citrus plants/ fruits and it is suggested that further work should be carried out to isolate the various active constituents responsible for therapeutic activity of such plants which belongs to Rutaceae family. In the present review, various materials and methodologies are studied and comparative analysis of phytochemicals and phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavoinds, tannins, proteins etc. are screened of Citrus Limon, Citrus Aurantium, Citrus medica
9. A REVIEW ON VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL IN PURE AND PHARMACEUTICAL TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Mo. Firoj Tanwar, Ritika Bhatia, Sulekha Mandal, Dilip Agarwal
Immunosuppressant medications, or those that weaken the body’s immunological response, such mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept) is used to treat a variety of autoimmune illnesses. The prevalence of normal phase chromatography in HPLC has dwindled as a result of its inefficiencies, such as the short solvent retention times for its mobile phase solvents. Consequently, liquid chromatography systems frequently use reverse phase chromatography. The goal of this study is to describe and create a straightforward, precise, and focused technique for the RP-HPLC method of mycophenolate mofetil determination in pure and pharmaceutical dosage form. The accuracy, system appropriateness, precision, linearity, robustness, limit detection and limit of quantitation are just a few of the factors that may be used to verify the RP-HPLC method.
10. A STUDY ON ADVERSE EFFECTS OF DRUGS DURING THE CLINICAL MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES
Khushboo, Yogesh Sharma
DM is one of the widely spread disorder in the world. In this disease the blood sugar level increases. The management of DM is done by several oral hypoglycemic drugs. In this study we are observing the adverse effects during the management of DM and produced due to the consumption of anti-diabetic drugs. After the completion of the study we will be able to know the outcome of the adverse effects. Aim & Objective:
To observe the adverse drug reactions of drugs during the clinical management of the diabetes to overcome them and make life easy by safe use of drugs and balanced diet. Method:
The patients were selected from O.P.D of Imperial Hospital & Research Center. Total 509 patients will be selected on the basis of different study criteria. Patient counseling process was carried out using specified forms taken them for analysis. Observation:
Individuals of age 35-75 year, both sex and different type adverse effects were selected for present study. Initially total 550 patients were taken; out of 550 patients, 41 patients had discontinued the clinical trial due to selection criteria. Finally 509 patients were included. It was found that out of 509 patients 30% were below 50yr. male, 24% were below 50yr. females, 25% were above 50yr. male & 21% were above 50yr. females. It was found that out of 509 patients 75, 76, 84 & 132 patients of them were affected due to Dryness; Hair loss, Muscular & joint pain; Irregular breathing. Result & Conclusion:
As per the anthropometric assessment showing in the table and chart, the multiple and combination therapy of drugs having multiple and highest peak of the adverse effects. The highest percentage of adverse effects were found with drugs Metformin + Glimpride + Pioglitazone. The patients with Metformin + Glimpride + Pioglitazone were suffering from all the side effects as compared to other. The highest peak of patients found of the adverse effects were found with drug Metformin + Glipizide in male below 50 year old, where as in male above 50 year old found highest peak of patients with drug Metformin + Glimpride + Pioglitazone. The minimum adverse effects were recorded with drug Metformin with minimum number of patients. The second minimum adverse effects were recorded with drug Glimpride. As per the above results we can conclude that the drug Pioglitazone having maximum adverse effects as compared to other drugs.
11. A NOVEL APPROACH IN GASTRO RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Priya, Dilip Agarwal, Mohit Khandelwal
The purpose of writing this review on gastro retentive drug delivery systems was to compile the recent literature with special focus on various gastro retentive approaches that have recently become leading methodologies in the field of site-specific orally administered controlled release drug delivery. In this review, the current technological developments of FDDS and marketed products have been discussed. In addition, the pharmaceutical basis of their design, their advantages and future potential for oral controlled drug delivery are discussed.
12. ANTIFUNGAL PESSARIES: A REVIEW
Vani Madaan, Chetan Singh Chauhan
The incidence and spectrum of local as well as systemic fungal infections have increased dramatically over the past two decades. Various factors which predispose patient to invasive fungal infections are advances in medical technology, use of invasive monitoring devices, mechanical ventilation, parenteral nutrition, broad spectrum antimicrobial agents, intensive cancer chemotherapies, corticosteroid and other immunosuppressive. Traditionally, many invasive fungal infections were associated with a poor prognosis, because effective therapeutic options were limited. The recent development of new antifungal agents has significantly contributed to the successful treatment of fungal diseases. These drugs offer novel mechanisms of action and expanded spectrums of activity over traditional treatment options. However, with these new agents comes the need for increased awareness of the potential interactions and toxicities associated with these drugs. This review provides a summary of the pharmacologic principles involved in treatment of fungal diseases.
Some drugs are poorly absorbed after the oral administration. Over the last twenty years, extensive efforts have been made towards the administration of poorly absorbed drugs through different delivery systems and routes but the presence of a mucus laden cervix (vagina) in women provides an opportunity as a conjoint site for such drug delivery. The vaginal route has been rediscovered as a potential route for systemic delivery of various therapeutically important drugs avoid first pass metabolism. In the current study, further attention has been made on various polymers which are used in hydrogel which provide bioadhesive property to the vaginal formulations, so that the formulation remains vaginal tissues for proper time. The main objective of the present review is to summarize various vaginal drug delivery systems with an special emphasis an vaginal physiology, factors affecting the vaginal drug absorption, mechanism of vaginal epithelium drug absorption including the advances in the current approaches in vaginal drug delivery systems.
13. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION BY HPLC METHOD
Mohd. Ibrahim, Rakesh Goyal, Dilip Agarwal
Validation of an analytical procedure is the process of demonstrate with suitable for its intended purpose. Chromatographic such HPLC methods play significant role in the pharmaceutical industry from the drug discovery, development of drugs, formulations and quality control of chemicals. Many validated analytical methods ensure that it provides consistent, reliable and accurate data for results. So these methods help pharmaceutical analyst to ensure quality products are released for market. This review explains general approach for validation process and validation parameters to be considered during validation of a HPLC method. It also used to refer for various regulatory requirements. The parameters described follow to ICH guidelines and include accuracy, precision, specificity and limit of detection, limit of quantitation, linearity, range and robustness.
14. DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLET OF TIZANIDINE USING FENUGREEK SEED MUCILAGE
Siddhanshu Jain, Mohit Khandelwal, Dilip Agrawal, Rakesh Goyal
The demands for fast dissolving tablets have received ever increasing day by day during the last decade. In the present projected study, the effect of natural superdisintegrant was compared with synthetic super disintegrants and conventional super disintegrants in the of fast dissolving tablet formulation of tizanidine Hcl. Tizanidine Hcl is a potent muscle relaxant which management of increased muscle tone associated with spasticity. In the present work 12 formulations of FDT (Fast dissolving tablet) of tizanidine were prepared by using isolated mucilage of fenugreek seed was evaluated and compiles with the official parameters and specifications. Various formulations were prepared using four different superdisintegrsnts namely- fenugreek seed mucilage, kyron T-104, sodium starch glycolate, cross carmelose sodium with three concentrations ( 5%, 10%, 15%) by direct compression method.
The blend was evaluated for pre-compression parameters like Angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, and then tablet evaluated post-compression parameters like thickness, drug content, hardness, weight variation, wetting time, friability, disintegration time, dissolution time, drug release study. The best formulations were also found to be stable and optimized formulations were subjected to the stability studies as per ICH guideline.
15. DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION ANTIFUNGAL OLEOGEL OF SERTACONAZOLE
Chetan Sharma, Dilip Agrawal, Mohit Khandelwal, Rakesh Goyal
The main purpose of the study is to develop a topical drug delivery (Oleogel) system of Serteconazole to reduce side effect the dose of the active drug, to improve patient compliance, and increase local onset absorption and action. Sartaconazole interacts with 14-α demethylase, a cytochrome P-450 enzyme necessary to convert lanosterol to ergosterol. As ergosterol is an essential component of the fungal cell membrane, inhibition of its synthesis results in increased cellular permeability causing leakage of cellular contents. Topical Oleogel formulations development of Serteconazole was prepared by using Different-different polymers by enhancer stability and viscosity with their different concentrations. Six different formulations of Serteconazole were evaluated parameters with respect to their appearance, Spreadability, viscosity, determination of pH, drug content of formulations, in vitro drug release studies, and stability studies. FT-IR study results that there were no any interaction between the drug, Polymers, and excipients. All the developed formulations of Serteconazole show acceptable standard physical properties.
16. COLON TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM ADVANCE IN NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Jayprakash, Mohit Khandelwal, Dilip Agrawal, Rakesh Goyal
The oral route is considered to be the most preferred route for administration of drugs for systemic effect, but the oral route is not suitable to the administration of drug for lower gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, this happened due to their release at upper GI tract (stomach, small intestine), which further minimizes the accessibility of drugs at the lower GI tract. To overcome this difficulty, colon-specific drug delivery systems have been broadly analyzed during the last two decades. Oral delivery of drugs to the colon is valuable in the treatment of diseases of colon (ulcerative colitis, Chron’s disease, carcinomas and infections) whereby high local concentration can be achieved while minimizing side effects that occur because of release of drugs in the upper GIT or unnecessary systemic absorption. The simplest method for targeting of drugs to the colon is to obtain slower release rates or longer release periods by the application of thicker layers of conventional enteric coatings or extremely slow releasing matrices. Various pharmaceutical approaches to to colon targeted delivery system are a) covalent linkage of drug with carrier b) coating with polymers c) coating with pH sensitive polymers d) coating with biodegradable polymers.
17. PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF JATROPHA CURCAS
Kamal, Rakesh Kumar Jaat
The herbal plants are also known as natural products with their important function. Jatropha curcas is flowering plant and mainly grow in desert and arid region of various continents. Its flowers are ornamental and used for worship also. Its seeds are similar to castor plant and useful source of castor oils. Seeds mainly contain eighty present unsaturated fatty acids and twenty percent saturated fatty acid. The plant is used for antidiabetic, antibacterial and antioxidant activity. Jatropha curcas an important plant was evaluated for its antibacterial potential for the ﬁrst time against important bacteria and fungus. Current research work mainly exhibits ant-ibacterial effect of Jatropha carcus plant. Analgesic acitivity exhibited by Jatropha carcus extract is produced by two ways peripherally and centrally. For pheripheral activity writhing test is used and writhings are produced by administering acetic acid. Free radical scavenger activity had been determined by various methods as mentioned above diphenyl picrazy hydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide and super oxide dismutase. Ferric ions are reduced to ferrous ion for determining reducing activity of herbal plant extracts of different parts like leaves, aerial part, roots and stem barks. Non-steroidal antiinflammatory medicaments show its anti-pyretic activity by inhibiting enzyme PG synthetase through hypothalamus. Jatropha curcas extract was utilized to test fewer reducing capcity by administering Brewer’s yeast to albino wistar rats of either sex male or female. These extracts inhibit biosynthesis of prostandins that are responsible for fever and inflammation. Jatropha extract showed significant effect on pyrexia induced by yeast. Recinolic acid is responsible for defecating the contents from gastrointestinal tract. Extracts are used in therapy and prevention of infantile diarrhea and most widely used in rural areas of developing countries.Jatropha carcus plant extract of stem bark used for healing of wound.Jatropha carcus had been found to reduce glucose levels in albino wistar rats as test groups in comparison with standard drug glibenclaminde. Stem bark of J. carcus has effective constituents in treatment of diabetes. The potencyof these extracts was found to be very effective in treatment of diabetes.
18. STUDY ON THE PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND DETERMINATION OF SECONDARY METABOLITES ON SEED OF TRIBULUS TERRISTRIS
Paridhi Nyati, Shilpa Bhargava
The present research work the systematic valuation of Tribulus terrestris
for its medical efficacy. The aim of this study is to evaluate secondary metabolites phytoconstituents of seed powder of Tribulus terrestris
qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Phytochemical screening of seed extract of Tribulus terrestris
carried out with aqueous solvent. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenol, Saponin, glycosides, carbohydrate, Flavonoid, alkaloids, protein and tannin. The quantitative studies revealed that seed of Tribulus terrestris
possessed Alkaloids, Tannin, Saponin, cardiac glycoside and Flavonoid value was found to be 39.6%, 30.4%, 0.19%, 25.9%, and 32.1% respectively. The high level of primary metabolites in the sample reveals its nutritive value. These secondary metabolites could be responsible for the observed medicinal properties of Tribulus terrestris
by traditional herbalists.