1. Scorpion Venom as Therapeutic Agent – Current Perspective Attarde S S, Pandit S V
Scorpions and their venoms are employed in ancient medication for thousands of years in Asian country and continent. The scorpion venom is an extremely advanced mixture of salts, nucleotides, biogenic amines, enzymes, mucoproteins, similarly as peptides and proteins (e.g. Neurotoxins). Scorpion venoms contain peptides that block or modify ion-channel function and will present some doable applications to regulate cell excitability. Specific literature is revised here, regarding the results of scorpion venom elements on T-cell differentiation, autoimmunity, similarly as on cardiac, haematological, neoplasic and infectious diseases. Several investigations made public their potent effects against microbes and showed their potential to modulate varied biological mechanisms that are concerned in immune, nervous, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases. As a result of their necessary structural and purposeful diversity, it’s projected that scorpion-derived peptides might be accustomed to develop new specific medicine. This review focuses on the therapeutic potential of scorpion venoms and toxins and also the doable mechanisms for their anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial activities and for the treatment of autoimmune, cardiac, hematological, infectious, Osteoporosis, homeostasis and neurological diseases.
2. Anemia a Common Aliment in Women and its Prevalence in Ruler Population: A random Survey Report Dwivedi M., Prakash S., Singh P.K., Kumar A., Dubey R.K., Tiwari S.
This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of anemia in women (15-60 years) in rural area of Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh, India. Villages were randomly selected for this survey and 113 women were included. Mean Hemoglobin level in g/dL 9.5 respectively. A high prevalence of anaemia (68.04%) was observed in women of mixed vegetarian. Majority of the women were moderately anaemic (59.56%) and were under BMI18.5. Occurrence of anaemia in women was found to be inversely proportional to the literacy status. Statistically significant association (P <0.05) were found amongst anaemic antenatal women with their literacy status and BMI however statistically significant association was not found in various dietary factors.
3. Extemporaneous Furosemide Suspensions for Pediatrics Use Prepared From Commercially Available Tablets Heyam Ali, Rasha Saad, Ahmed Ahmed, Babiker El-Haj
Objective: Three furosemide aqueous suspensions for paediatric oral usage (2 mg/ml) were investigated to determinate its physicochemical stability under different storage conditions. Method: Formulations using sugar syrup and sugar free vehicles were stored at 4 and 25 oC and the furosemide content was determined by spectrophotometer. Each sample was analyzed by triplicate at different time points (0, 7, 14, 28, 56, 72 and 90 days). Results: Liquid suspensions were successfully formulated from commercially available tablets. In both cases, samples showed suitable physical stability. Furosemide was chemically stable in aqueous suspension during the 90 days of the study at the two storage temperatures. Conclusions: All the tried oral liquid formulations can be conserved at 4 and 25 oC at least 56, 72 and 90 -day period.
4. Influence of Extraction Method on Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity from Leaves Extract of Algerian Phoenix dactylifera L Dia Ouahida, Ouahrani Mohammed Ridha, Laouini Salah Eddine
The genus Phoenix is one of the most widely cultivated groups of palms around the world. In this study, we have evaluated the antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds by using various in vitro systems and analysis of marker compounds by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of leaves extracts of Phoenix dactylifera L obtained by classical, ultrasonic assisted and Soxhlet method. The total phenolic content, flavonoids and tannin were determined by a spectrophotometric method. Total antioxidant activity expressed by reducing Mo (VI) to Mo (V) and DPPH radical-scavenging methods were applied to test the antioxidant activities. The results indicated that the extract obtained by the ultrasonic assisted method extraction showed the highest total contents of phenolic. The antioxidant activities also found to be highest with the ultrasonic assisted method extract followed by other extraction techniques (Soxhlet and classical method). The results suggest that the leaves of the Phoenix dactylifera L can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidant, that we can use these natural extracts as food additives in replacement of synthetic compounds
5. Preparation and characterization of Bilateral composite (Metal-Polymer) for antibacterial activity against wound pathogen M. Malini, C. Malarkodi, S. Rajeshkumar, M. Ponnanikajamideen, G. Annadurai
The adherence of any tissue gets injured called as wounds. During this time skin needs to be covered with a dressing immediately after it is damage. In this paper silver nitrate incorporated with chitosan sustained antimicrobial capability has been developed by an antimicrobial activity well diffusion method. The chitosan consists of a dense skin and porous material, which can fit the requirements for this to be used as a wound dressing. Silver nitrate is traditionally used antibacterial effects for the prevention of wound infection; however, it has raised concern of potential silver toxicity. The chitosan material acts as a rate- controlling wound dressing to incorporate silver nitrate and release silver ions from the porous layer of chitosan. The bacteria culture Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus sp, Klebsilla Pneumoneae, Planomicrobium sp and Staphylococcus aureus showed a great result of antimicrobial activity and decreased potential silver toxicity. Further, the morphological shape and crystalinity of silver-chitosan composites characterization was confirmed by SEM and EDAX analysis. The responsible functional groups in the chitosan coated silver nitrate composites were identified by FTIR. These studies indicate that the new type of silver-chitosan wound dressing may be effective in the treatment of infected wounds.
The rapid development of nanotechnology has opened the doors of innovation of many industrial sectors like food technology, food development, food packaging, agricultural sector and pharmaceuticals, sport goods, electronics, paints, varnishes and cosmetics.Some applications of nanoparticles have already been explored and some are under research. The nanotechnology based sectors mainly includes increased efficacy of drugs, agrochemicals and cosmetics. Such a development has poked the human health and environment due to its specific size related propertie and wide spread use and applications. This paper targets the potential risks and harms to the human healths from this technological boon. In absence of any legislative recommendations for production, handling and disposal of nanomaterials , the life of human beings is more prone to damages beyond imagination
7. Stability And Antibiotic Activity Vancomycin Ophtalmic Solution Prepared From Vancomycin Dry Injection Against Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Staphylococcus aereus Aprilita Rina Yanti Eff, Sri Teguh Rahayu, Harison Tarigan
Vancomycin is Glycopeptide antibiotic relatively unstable in aqueous solution and is not commercially available as eyedrops, so measurement of pH and antibiotic activity are needed1 . This study aim to assess the stability and the in vitro antibacterial potency of vancomycin eyedrops against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, under different solvent and storage temperatures Stock solutions of vancomycin 100 mg⁄ ml was prepared by reconstituting vancomycin dry injection with water for injection (Aqua PI) or NaCl 0,9% and stored at cold and room temperature. The minimum inhibitor concentrations against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were measured to evaluate the antimicrobial potency at consentration 30μg / mL, 45μg / mL and 60 μg/ mL . Changes in the pH values and physical characteristics of the solutions were recorded for evaluate stability of solution Vancomycin 60 μg/ mL has antibacterial effect against S. aureus The antibacterial potency of Vancomycin in NaCl 0,9% and in aqua PI solution decreased significantly from day 3 and day 4 respectively, storage temperature affected antibacterial potency. The pH value of vancomycin in NaCl 0.9% solution at a room and cold temperature are 4.68-6.66 and 5,41- 6.66 successively, while in aqua PI solution are 2,8-4.50 at room temperature and 3,51- 4.45 at cold temperatures.
8. Evaluation of Burn Wound Healing Activity of Momordica cymbalaria Fenzil Priya Soman, Nagarathna PKM, Solanki Vijay Harjubhai, Rosey Sarraf, Shemin S Dani
The present investigation is undertaken to evaluate the burn wound healing efficacy of Momordica Cymbalaria Fenzl (family Cucurbitaceae) and to explore its possible mechanism of action on experimental burn wounds in rats. Burn were induced in SD female rat divided into five group as following; Group-I (negative control) received no treatment. Group II,III,IV,V,Received SSC (1%w/w) ,5%extract of MC ,Scafold, 5% of sapaninof MC topically twice daily for 14 days.The efficacy of trearment was evaluated based on the wound contraction, period of epithelization, hydroxyproline content, anti-oxidant activity and histopathology studies.The 5% of saponin of MC treated group show faster reduction in wound area in comparison but lesser then the SSC-treated groups. The topical application of 5% of saponin of MC inceased collagen synthesis and stabilization at wound site by increase in hydroproline and up-regulated collagen type III.Furthermore there was significant increase in level enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant and decresed in lipid peroxide level.Momordica Cymbalaria roots posses significant healing potential in burn wound and have positive influence on different phases of wound repair
9. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Flavonoids Fraction Extract from Arnebia Decumbens (Vent) Growing in South East Algeria Tamma N. Eddine, Gherraf N. Eddine, Laoini Salah Eddine, Kefi Serra, Selmi Sowsen, Limam Ferid
This study intends to investigate plants that grow in southeast Algeria namely Arnebia Decumbens (Vent.) which are commonly used by medical science for a treatment. More especially this study shed light on the antioxidant effect and biological activity of the plant whereby extraction of the active ingredients flavonoids is taken into account. The active ingredients were identified through the scanning device using High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC). In-order to get deep insight into the body of knowledge towards extraction process; current study utilized both qualitative and quantitative approach. The data was analyzed separately on the antibacterial activity and oxidation of the extracts flavonoids. The obtained results revealed a significant effect on the proliferation of some bacterial strains and free radical. In addition, extracts of flavonoids have shown an active effect on bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6816 and Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistant and a greater efficacy than the antibiotic chosen “polymyxin B”. Hence, based on the empirical evidences it can be stated that from various concentrations approach; the sensitivity of each type of bacteria against each extract can be determined.
10. Elucidation of Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Daphniphyllum neilgherrense (Wt.) Rosenth Aerial Part in Wistar Rats Sornalakshmi V, Tresina Soris P, Paulpriya K, Packia Lincy M, Mohan V R
The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and antipyretic properties of the ethanol extract from aerial part of Daphniphyllum neilgherrense in wistar albino rats. The analgesic activity of aerial part of Daphniphyllum neilgherrense was studied using hot plate method and tail immersion method in rats. The antipyretic activity of aerial part of Daphniphyllum neilgherrense was studied in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in rats. In analgesic activity by hot plate and tail immersion models, ethanol extract significantly (p<0.001) reduce the painful stimulus. This confirms central and peripheral effects of the drug. It also possess antipyretic activity, ethanol extract significantly (p<0.01) reduces fever at higher doses within 3 hours on Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia model in rats.
11. The Role of Abnormal Ketone Bodies during Insulin Deficiency in Streptozotocin-Induce Diabetes Ibrahim H. Borai, Ahmed M Ibrahim, Mamdouh M. Ali, Mahmoud M Said Abd El-Hamid, Amal G Hussien
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is the most common metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of hyperglycemia due to defective insulin secretion, defective insulin action or both. This study aimed to determine the efficiency of treatment with different doses of insulin through comparing body weight and biochemical parameters such as liver function tests (aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminases (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP); glucose level; insulin level; pancreatic enzymes (amylase and lipase) activities; lipid profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins) as well as determination of Beta hydroxybutyrate level (β-HB) which provide useful information for diagnosing and managing of diabetes complications in serum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats among the experimental groups. Experimental animals were induced diabetes with a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 75 mg/kg body weight. Seventy five male rats were divided into five equal groups each of fifteen. Control group (group I), diabetic group (group II), insulin treated diabetic groups (group III, IV and V) which received a single daily dose of one unit of insulin per each (50, 100 or 200 mg) rise in blood sugar, respectively. Obtained results revealed that body weight, different biochemical parameters and ketone bodies level were re-established in diabetic rats treated with affected dose of insulin. We concluded that treatment with sufficient dose of insulin is effective to maintain the biochemical parameters at or near normal level and also, we concluded that determination of β-HB was found to be useful in establishing the diagnosis and avoidance of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Thus, β-HB can be a sensitive metabolic marker to estimate the adequacy of insulin therapy.